Biology 2023, February

Scientists have discovered a new cause of male infertility

Scientists have discovered a new cause of male infertility

Research has shown that deficiency of the autoimmune regulator AIRE leads to problems with fertility and mating, affects testosterone levels and the development of hypogonadism

It was revealed how ants build their houses

It was revealed how ants build their houses

Engineers and biologists watched the ant colony in order to understand how they dig their cities. Research can help to conduct underground work more efficiently: for example, in the construction of a subway

Biologists have shown that bacterial populations can survive hundreds of thousands of years of starvation

Biologists have shown that bacterial populations can survive hundreds of thousands of years of starvation

Bacterial colonies survived two and a half years of complete isolation in the absence of food, almost without diminishing: theoretically they could have survived for a hundred thousand years

Lung cancer learned to detect using blood tests and artificial intelligence

Lung cancer learned to detect using blood tests and artificial intelligence

New non-invasive method detects more than 90 percent of lung cancer cases at various stages among nearly 800 people

In South Africa, discovered the remains of the oldest archaea on Earth

In South Africa, discovered the remains of the oldest archaea on Earth

Fossils over 3.4 billion years old may be remnants of archaeal microbes that lived and emitted methane from hydrothermal vents at the bottom of a fossil sea

Scientists have proposed a new explanation for the secret of centenarians

Scientists have proposed a new explanation for the secret of centenarians

Study of the gut microbiome by Japanese and American scientists provides one of the potential keys to longevity and treatment of bacterial infections

A woman without olfactory bulbs did not lose her sense of smell: how and why do people manage to live normally without important parts of the brain

A woman without olfactory bulbs did not lose her sense of smell: how and why do people manage to live normally without important parts of the brain

Researchers have discovered in the girl an amazing anomaly - the absence of olfactory bulbs with a preserved sense of smell. Let's try to figure out why this is possible and how the brain copes with the need to "replace" problem areas

Largest coral ever found in the Great Barrier Reef

Largest coral ever found in the Great Barrier Reef

This ball of calcium carbonate is 10.4 meters across and is inhabited by a colony of living coral polyps that have created it for over 400 years

Rattlesnake signal turned out to be a means to deceive an approaching animal

Rattlesnake signal turned out to be a means to deceive an approaching animal

European biologists called the rattle an analogue of the parking assistance system: it warns not only about the presence of a rattlesnake, but also about the distance to it, and does it wrong

Isolation of fruit flies led to overeating and lack of sleep

Isolation of fruit flies led to overeating and lack of sleep

American biologists have studied the effect of social isolation on flies and identified neurons that "survive" loneliness, stimulating hunger and disrupting sleep

Friendship between male chimpanzees has influenced the number of their offspring

Friendship between male chimpanzees has influenced the number of their offspring

Scientists from the United States have found that the more male chimpanzees are in contact with each other, the more cubs they can have

Biologists have discovered an increase in the size of animals in large cities

Biologists have discovered an increase in the size of animals in large cities

Contrary to popular belief, urbanization leads to an increase in the size and weight of urban mammals. Scientists attribute this to greater safety and food availability in streets and landfills

Biologists have grown brain organelles with a pair of rudimentary eyes

Biologists have grown brain organelles with a pair of rudimentary eyes

German scientists have learned to obtain "in vitro" the embryos of brain structures with optic cups capable of reacting to light

Biologists have noticed that aggressive bees secrete more saturated venom

Biologists have noticed that aggressive bees secrete more saturated venom

The content of protein toxins in bee venom decreases in the heat, but increases when the bee becomes aggressive

The experiment helped to debunk the myth of blind people

The experiment helped to debunk the myth of blind people

Scientists have shown that blind people are less likely to associate yellow with bananas and red with a stop sign than sighted people, but they offer similar conclusions and explanations about the colors of real and fictional objects. To understand this characteristic, everyday life in society turned out to be enough

Dolphins, like humans, are susceptible to metabolic slowdowns as they age

Dolphins, like humans, are susceptible to metabolic slowdowns as they age

American scientists were the first to measure the metabolic slowdown with age in large species of marine mammals. It turned out that dolphins, like humans, suffer from this problem. The study results will help shed light on the factors that underlie age-related weight gain in people, regardless of diet and lifestyle

The spicy scent of pepper comes from bats

The spicy scent of pepper comes from bats

Scientists have concluded that allspice developed its scent through evolution to attract the attention of bats

The number of mutations in male germ cells that cause diseases in offspring has been calculated

The number of mutations in male germ cells that cause diseases in offspring has been calculated

The study showed that clonal testes mosaicism contributes to the transmission of a pathogenic exon variant to offspring in one of 15 cases and, due to its stability, poses a lifelong threat to children

Bacteria that decompose diesel fuel and oil found in the Canadian Arctic

Bacteria that decompose diesel fuel and oil found in the Canadian Arctic

Best of all, bioremediation techniques - that is, cleaning and restoring the environment with the help of flora and fauna - have been studied for mid-latitudes. But global warming is sweeping across the planet, so that more and more northern regions are involved in an active economic life. And at the same time, the problem of pollution becomes more pronounced. Therefore, Canadian scientists turned their gaze to the coast of the Labrador Peninsula, where they found several types of bacteria at once capable of decomposing oil, fuel oil and diesel oil spills

The first land plants evolved from freshwater algae

The first land plants evolved from freshwater algae

Scientists from Australia and the USA studied the spores of ancient plants and concluded that terrestrial forms evolved from freshwater green algae

Polynesians shorten the wings of a New Zealand insect

Polynesians shorten the wings of a New Zealand insect

The incident confirmed the long-standing hypothesis of Charles Darwin that the loss of wings - for all their apparent usefulness - for insects has significant evolutionary meaning

The tusk of an ancient mammoth helped to reconstruct his biography

The tusk of an ancient mammoth helped to reconstruct his biography

Isotopes in the annual rings of the mammoth tusk made it possible to map its movements in Alaska - from birth in the Yukon Valley to death 28 years later, far in the north of the peninsula

Dog heart, dog head

Dog heart, dog head

The story of how the nightmarish experiments of Soviet physiologists led to brilliant discoveries and benefited all of humanity

Belief in the devil linked to epidemics - perhaps in vain

Belief in the devil linked to epidemics - perhaps in vain

A society where the devil or other evil forces are associated with disease is more effective at preventing its spread, new research suggests. Let's try to show why in real life everything may not be quite so, or even not at all so

Received a 3D image of the most powerful antibody to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2

Received a 3D image of the most powerful antibody to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2

The image, created using X-ray analysis of proteins, shows how molecules at the ends of a neutralizing antibody interfere with the ability of coronavirus spike molecules to bind to receptors on the surface of human cells

A universal antibody has been developed that can protect a person from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, most of its "relatives" and their possible mutations

A universal antibody has been developed that can protect a person from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, most of its "relatives" and their possible mutations

The variability of viruses raises legitimate concerns about the effectiveness of vaccines against them, both among ordinary people and among specialists. Therefore, work continues on the creation of broad-spectrum antibodies. And one of these studies was crowned with success: American specialists created the ADG-2 antibody, which effectively binds not only to the Covid-19 pathogen, but also to most of its related species

Bacteria-astronauts: together to distant planets

Bacteria-astronauts: together to distant planets

Man will soon go to Mars, and then, perhaps, to more distant planets. For this we design rockets and spaceships. We calculate favorable flight paths and send automatic probes in search of convenient places for landing and building bases. But while this is not enough to go to the Red Planet tomorrow

The predominance of fermented foods in the diet has been recognized as beneficial to health

The predominance of fermented foods in the diet has been recognized as beneficial to health

A Stanford study found that a diet dominated by fermented foods increases gut microbiome diversity and lowers inflammatory proteins in adults

Mammals were able to breathe by the intestines

Mammals were able to breathe by the intestines

This conclusion was reached by scientists from Japan and the United States. They found that rodents and pigs are able to use the intestines for respiration, like some marine organisms. Such developments in a hospital setting, perhaps, could even help people who have partially lost the ability to breathe

ISS to conduct new bioprinting experiments this year

ISS to conduct new bioprinting experiments this year

The project is initiated by Russian scientists from the 3D Bioprinting Solutions laboratory

Find out why ants are so strong

Find out why ants are so strong

An international team of scientists took X-rays of the thoracic regions of the ants' bodies, analyzing their muscles and internal skeleton. As a result, the researchers found that the strength of these insects is associated with the loss of the ability to fly

Ants were able to arrange trapping nets in dangerous sections of the path

Ants were able to arrange trapping nets in dangerous sections of the path

Trails of nomadic ants can run through very difficult obstacles in the jungle, and in the most dangerous sections of the path insects form protective nets that insure their fellows from falling

Ants have learned to use sand for tool activities

Ants have learned to use sand for tool activities

Scientists have found that ants are able to build structures from sand to extract liquid food. In the last experiment, they created something like a siphon and were able to safely draw out of the container up to half of the sugar solution, on the surface of which they could not hold without additional tools

Ant smell will help create a spider repellent

Ant smell will help create a spider repellent

Biologists have demonstrated that red myrmic ants leave a chemical trail that repels different species of spiders

American biologists have discovered insects that change the size of their own brain

American biologists have discovered insects that change the size of their own brain

Working individuals of Indian jumping ants can restore and then lose their ability to reproduce, and during these transformations, their brains change by a quarter in size

Biologists have observed "matchmaking" in ants

Biologists have observed "matchmaking" in ants

European ants can carry a young queen to a nearby nest for mating with as distant relatives as possible

Ants swallow their own acid to fight infections

Ants swallow their own acid to fight infections

Experiments have shown that after eating and drinking, ants try to swallow a drop of their own acid in order to destroy microbes that have entered the digestive tract and protect themselves from diseases

Australian ants have learned to extract nitrogen from kangaroo urine

Australian ants have learned to extract nitrogen from kangaroo urine

Due to the nitrogen deficiency on Kangaroo Island, local ants arrange "quarries" and "mines" and extract urea from the sand soaked in large animals for weeks

The study of ants showed an example of reverse evolution

The study of ants showed an example of reverse evolution

Researchers have found that turtle ants have evolved towards more specialization and vice versa

The study explains the strange appearance of "hell ants"

The study explains the strange appearance of "hell ants"

About 99 million years ago, an ancient "hell ant" caught a cockroach, which he was going to eat, but did not have time to do it and got stuck in tree resin. Nowadays, scientists have discovered amber, in which this very ant has survived. The find helped them understand why the "hell ants" needed strange horns