Man has always aspired to the sky. And now it is available to almost everyone. How to take the first step to fly for yourself, become a civil aviation pilot or sit at the helm of a combat fighter, Naked Science will tell.
Civil aviation pilot
Civil aviation pilot is not only a romantic profession, but also a very popular one. Not so long ago, a shortage of pilots forced the state to allow foreign pilots to operate airliners, which caused a serious discussion in the aviation community. Airlines begin to hunt for future captains of aircraft even in the first years of institutes.
Only three universities in the country train civil pilots: Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation, St. Petersburg University of Civil Aviation and Ulyanovsk Institute of Civil Aviation named after Chief Marshal of Aviation B.P.Bugaev. All other educational institutions of civil aviation - aviation technical colleges and flight schools, scattered in different cities of the country, are branches of the above three. It should be noted that airlines are not always satisfied with the quality of training for young pilots and often retrain them in their training centers.
Good health is a prerequisite for training and subsequent work. The future pilot should have perfect vision, healthy heart and blood vessels, normal blood pressure and good vestibular apparatus. And, of course, healthy lungs. If health problems are not revealed during admission to the school, then during subsequent medical commissions they will certainly be discovered. Much attention is paid to foreign languages and, first of all, English. In fact, he has already become the number one language in civil aviation. Without his knowledge, you can't get into a large airline.
In order to operate commercial flights, that is, work in an airline as a hired pilot, you need to have a commercial pilot's license or a line pilot's license. The latter allows for any commercial flights. They are the ones who are trusted by the steering wheels of Boeing and Airbus. A commercial pilot is an intermediate step between a private recreational pilot and a line pilot. They are allowed to operate commercial flights with some restrictions.
Passenger aircraft, which are to be operated by holders of a pilot's license, generally fall into two categories: long-haul (for example, Boeing 747 and Airbus A340) and medium-haul (Boeing 737, Airbus A320). The new Russian aircraft MS-21, presented to the public in June this year, is just a medium-haul aircraft. Depending on the choice of aircraft, the work of the pilot also changes.
The pilot of a medium-range aircraft flies short distances. His working day is the same as that of most normal people. Departure in the morning, return in the afternoon. And in the evening he is already at home with his family. But long-haul international flights allow you to see the whole world. Moreover, you can see it not only under the wing of an aircraft, but also while resting between flights in the distant corners of the planet. The work of a pilot in Russia, and throughout the world, is highly paid. In our country, this is also due to their significant shortage.
The main educational institution of the country, where military pilots are trained, is the Air Force Academy named after Professor N. Ye. Zhukovsky and Yu. A. Gagarin. It is located in Voronezh and has two branches. The branch of the Academy in Chelyabinsk trains military navigators, and the branch in Syzran trains military helicopter pilots.
But if your dream is to become a pilot of fighter aircraft, to fly at the controls of a front-line bomber or attack aircraft, then you are on your way to the Krasnodar Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots named after Hero of the Soviet Union A.K. Serov. On August 1, 2015, the school was withdrawn from the Air Force Academy, where it had the status of a branch, and gained independence. The Krasnodar School is the only educational institution in the country that produces military pilots for operational-tactical aviation. Pilots of long-range naval missile-carrying and anti-submarine aviation, as well as pilots of military transport aviation are also trained here.
The term of study is 5 years. You can enter the school before reaching the age of 27 years. In terms of health and physical fitness, applicants are subject to stringent requirements. The exam includes pull-ups on the bar, running 100 and 3000 meters. Cadets study the theory of flight and aerial shooting, aeronautics, the structure of aviation technology, meteorology and other disciplines. In addition to studying directly "aviation" subjects, cadets receive full combined arms training. They are engaged in drill training and study military regulations.
In Krasnodar, mainly theoretical training of cadets and their initial flight training is carried out. The flights are carried out directly at training air bases. For example, fighter pilots are trained at the Armavir training center. The training is carried out on the latest Yak-130 training aircraft. Bomber and ground attack pilots are trained at the Borisoglebsk Aviation Training Center, which is also equipped with Yak-130 training aircraft. The Balashov training center trains pilots for military transport and long-range aviation.
Before making the first independent flight, cadets fly with an instructor for a long time. And only when the future pilot gets comfortable in the air, he will be entrusted with an independent takeoff, circle flight and landing. The instructor will be behind the student's back all this time, and if he makes a gross mistake, he will take control of the car. If the flight is successful, the cadet will be entrusted with a completely independent flight.
Education does not stop even after graduation. Service in aviation involves constant flights to improve skills. From the moment of arrival in the regiment, the formation of a young pilot as an air fighter begins. First, these are daytime flights in simple weather conditions, and then in difficult ones. Night flights follow. Their complexity is gradually increasing. Consequently, the class of the pilot rises. If he arrives at the regiment as a third-class pilot, he soon reaches second, and then first class. In addition to the military profession, pilots receive a civilian profession, which allows them to find themselves in civilian life after the end of their service.
If you have already found your life's work, but the dream of the sky remains, you can fly just for yourself. To do this, you need to undergo training and obtain an amateur pilot certificate. The aircraft can be purchased or rented only for flights. The passage of a medical-flight expert commission for amateur pilots is also mandatory, but only a really serious illness will be an obstacle to flying.
In Russia, such training can be obtained at civil aviation training centers and flying clubs. Education is paid and not cheap at all. You will have to pay for the course from 300,000 rubles. The terms of study vary from 2 to 10 months. Here it should be borne in mind that the theoretical part of the program is studied, as a rule, in groups, and it takes from 2, 5 to 3 months, depending on the frequency of classes. This is 306 hours of theoretical studies. Aeronautics and navigation, aerodynamics and aviation meteorology are studied here. This also includes the study of aviation legislation and the design of the aircraft and engine.
But practical classes are held individually.According to the Federal Aviation Regulations, in order to become a private pilot, you need to fly at least 40 hours. At the same time, the cadet can fly at least every day, or he can come to the airfield only on weekends. It should be borne in mind that students' abilities are different. Sometimes even 40 hours may not be enough for a future amateur pilot to master the program. Having received the certificate of an amateur pilot, you can make independent flights on light airplanes, take your family and friends with you. But you won't be able to work as a pilot for hire or make transportation for money.
The plane is also not cheap. An old Yak-18 in good condition can be purchased for 35,000–40,000 euros. But the base cost with VAT and customs duties of the new Italian Tecnam P2002 Sierra is 123,050 euros. Another important item of expenses is aircraft storage. It is clear that it will not be possible to store it at home. As a rule, amateur pilots get membership in flying clubs. The aircraft is attached to the flying club, where it is stored and serviced. Aircraft are stored both in the open air at the airfield and in covered hangars. If you wish, while you will not be flying, you can lease the plane to the flying club. This will offset storage and maintenance costs and even generate some revenue. And if you don't want to buy your own plane, you can rent it for flights.
In addition, the certificate of a private pilot is a step into commercial aviation. Not everyone is admitted to the flight school. If the desire to become a pilot comes over 30, then training at the flying club is a chance to enter the profession. Naturally, with further training to a commercial pilot. Of course, this is not the easiest and rather expensive way, but if the sky beckons, then not all is lost.
You can read this article if you are interested in helicopters.