Francis Arnold, George Smith and Sir Gregory Winter were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to: Francis Arnold for the first directed evolution of enzymes, George Smith and Sir Gregory Winter for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.
Half of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to Francis Arnold. In 1993, she undertook the first directed evolution of enzymes - proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Since then, Arnold has refined the methods that are commonly used today to develop new catalysts. Francis Arnold's use of enzymes includes the more sustainable production of chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, as well as the production of renewable fuels for the green transportation sector.
The other half of the prize will be divided between George Smith and Sir Gregory Winter. In 1985, Smith developed a phage display in which a bacteriophage - a virus that infects a bacterium - can be used to develop new proteins. Winter used phage display to target the evolution of antibodies for the production of new pharmaceuticals. The first drug based on this method is adalimumab, approved in 2002 and used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Phage display also began to produce antibodies that can neutralize toxins, resist autoimmune diseases and treat metastatic cancer.
In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Joachim Frank, Jacques Dubouche and Richard Henderson for developing a microscopy method that allows you to see biomolecules exactly as they are. It has become possible to observe many molecular processes, allowing a deeper understanding of the chemistry of living organisms, which, in turn, contributes to the development of more effective drugs.
At least 25 laureates received the prestigious award for their contribution to the field of organic chemistry, which is significantly more than in any other branch of this field of natural science.
Recall that on October 2, the names of the Nobel Prize winners in physics became known. The award went to Arthur Eshkin, Gerard Moore and Donna Strickland for their inventions in the field of laser physics.