Physical theories about the end of the universe

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Physical theories about the end of the universe
Physical theories about the end of the universe

With the development of science, discussions about the end of the world not only did not end, but flared up with renewed vigor. Physicists do not stop discussing all kinds of scenarios for the end of the Universe: will there be a Great Squeeze, heat death, stopping time, or will there be no end at all?


Despite the huge stock of accumulated knowledge about the Universe, scientists still understand little about it. Like a person who wants to know how much time is allotted to him on Earth, science never ceases to be interested in when and how the end of the world, the end of the universe, will come.

Currently, there are many physical theories about the end of the universe. We decided to present only a few of them.

Big Compression

Most astrophysicists agree that our universe was born as a result of the Big Bang. Before that, all matter was concentrated in a single singularity, a point with infinite density in the middle of the great Nothing. What exactly caused the Big Bang, science is not yet able to answer.

The Big Squeeze (or Big Slam), as the name suggests, is the exact opposite of the Big Bang. According to this theory, matter scattering in all directions, in the end, due to the forces of gravity, must slow down its motion, stop, and then begin to shrink.

The compression process will continue until the entire Universe - planets, stars, galaxies, black holes, particles - will not merge again into an infinitely dense point, and everything will return to normal.

Many physicists, however, are skeptical about this theory, since, as was established relatively recently, the Universe continues to expand, and is constantly accelerating, so that the slowing down of matter is out of the question.

Heat death of the universe

The heat death theory is the exact opposite of the Great Squeeze. According to her, the forces of attraction are not enough to stop the scattering of matter, so the Universe will continue to expand exponentially, the distance between galaxies will increase.

According to the laws of thermodynamics, in any closed system, entropy increases, heat is distributed evenly. If we extrapolate this principle to the Universe, we can come to the conclusion that all matter, in the end, should be evenly distributed in space in the form of a cold dark fog of elementary particles.

All the stars will eventually go out, one after another, and there will be nowhere to take the energy to ignite new ones. All that will remain of the Universe is matter in a state of thermal equilibrium from elementary particles moving along random trajectories.

End of time

If there is anything immutable in the world, it is, of course, time. Whether there is a universe or not, time will keep going forward. Otherwise, how to distinguish one moment from another?

But what happens if time suddenly stands still? One moment will no longer be different from the next. There will be only one single moment - now and forever. Suppose we live in a universe whose existence lasts for an infinitely long time. If this is so, then everything that can ever happen will happen sooner or later with 100% probability.

Roughly the same thing will happen if one of us lives forever. Everything that can happen in his life will happen sooner or later. For example, if you can become a lifelong invalid, sooner or later an eternal person will become one.Since this contradicts many calculations (for example, regarding dark matter), scientists had to put forward the theory that time itself is not infinite, and sooner or later, it must stop. If this happens, none of us will notice. The world will freeze in an instant, and we will freeze with it, our mental processes will stop.

Stopped time will "last" forever, providing each of us with a pseudo-infinite life, which we cannot live, frozen in one instant like flies in amber.

Time barrier

If we try to calculate the probabilities in the Multiverse (a world consisting of an infinite number of universes), we will stumble upon the same problem as in a universe with an infinitely long existence: everything that can happen will happen sooner or later.

To get around this problem, scientists decided to calculate the probabilities for the Multiverse, which has certain time boundaries. But such a model can only function if such boundaries actually exist, and nothing can extend beyond it.

And if this is so, then according to physical laws, the Universe within the next 3, 7 billion years will cross the time barrier and cease to exist.

The end of the world is canceled

According to one of the theories of the Multiverse, universes can be constantly generated and then destroyed again, and according to a variety of scenarios, including the Great Compression, heat death, etc.

But it doesn't really matter: our Universe is just one of countless worlds. The destruction of one of them does not mean the end of the world; fresh ones will constantly be born, and, according to calculations, the number of new universes will exceed the number of dead, so there will be no end of the world.

At least in theory.

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