Survive at any cost: bunkers and shelters

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Survive at any cost: bunkers and shelters
Survive at any cost: bunkers and shelters
Anonim

Now that the Cold War is in the past, the average inhabitant of the Earth rarely thinks about a nuclear apocalypse. This, however, does not mean at all that there are no threats to civilization. Natural disasters, epidemics, local conflicts - all this will not go off the agenda soon. The problem is also that we, alas, cannot predict the future, so it is better to be prepared for any development of events.

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"Ghosts" of the past

The issue of underground shelters was best thought out during the period of geopolitical confrontation between capitalists and socialists. Every day the USSR and America were ready to start a deadly "nuclear game" with each other. Many have probably heard about the underground complex "Metro-2" located near Moscow and about the famous bunkers of the American-Canadian air warning system NORAD, which are located in Cheyenne Mountain. But not everyone knows about bunkers in other parts of the Earth, for example, in the Middle Kingdom. There, in particular, they created "Project 131". It is a tunnel system built in the late 60s and early 70s in Hubei province.

If a nuclear war happened, it was there that the headquarters of the command of the armed forces of the PRC was supposed to move. The Chinese built a 456 meter long tunnel system at a cost of 130 million yuan (or nearly US $ 19 million). Like many of its "brothers", the object was never completed, and in 1981 it was handed over to the civil authorities of Xianning Prefecture. Now tourists can visit the pavilions of "Project 131", although the tunnel itself is closed for visits and, if necessary, can be used for military purposes.

A similar fate befell Beijing's Great Underground Wall - an extensive network of bomb shelters located under the Chinese capital. Since 2000, parts of this complex have been open to visitors, although the PRC authorities maintain the functionality of the shelter. The scale of this structure is amazing. The length of some of the tunnels of the complex reaches 30 km, the depth of the passage system is up to 18 m. In total, there are about one thousand bomb shelters and bunkers under the capital: according to the plans of the creators, about 300 thousand Beijing residents could go underground in the event of a nuclear war. Hospitals, schools, restaurants, factories - it was all in the underground city.

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The largest underground bunker in China (and sometimes the whole world) is considered to be the facility known as Project 816. The interior of the complex is at a depth of an incredible 400 m, and the height of the Project 816 reactor compartment is almost 80 m. It is assumed that the underground structures will be able to withstand a close explosion of a 1 mt nuclear warhead or an earthquake of magnitude 8. The construction of the base was discontinued in 1984 due to a change in the international situation.

Robert Visino saves the world

Perhaps the growing geopolitical tensions played a role, and perhaps the cultural mainstream in the face of the "zombie apocalypse", but in recent years the idea of ​​creating bunkers and shelters has been increasingly discussed. The most ambitious of such projects in 2013 was presented by the head of Vivos, American businessman Robert Vicino. He "swung" to create one of the largest bunkers of our time, which could accommodate about 5 thousand. US residents.The rest of the survivors should be protected by huge doors, which, according to Visino, are capable of withstanding a megaton explosion at a distance of ten kilometers. They wanted to build the complex itself on the site of deep mines in eastern Kansas, which formerly belonged to the US Department of Defense. Previously, the army used the premises as warehouses. Each individual bunker in the complex was designed for a family of four. At the same time, the Americans could not abandon their usual way of life: underground, they would have access to a dance floor, a gym, a spa center, a theater, and much more. The total area of ​​underground buildings would be 609.6 thousand square meters. m. Themselves wanted to place the bunkers at a depth of 40 m. Either there were no buyers, or the object turned out to be too technically difficult, but the superbunker project had to be curtailed a year after the presentation.

Robert Visino, however, did not stop this failure. In 2015, he presented a similar idea, albeit inferior in scope. Now the businessman has offered to escape from the apocalypse in the “Soviet bunker in Germany” called Vivos Europa One. Many details of the new idea remain behind the scenes. It is known, however, that the total living area of ​​the underground facility should be more than 21 thousand square meters. m. Each family will be able to get a room with a width of 5, a height of 6, a length of 85 meters and an area of ​​232 sq. m. meters. The total length of the rooms will be 5 km. The complex will receive such aspects as necessary for survival, such as electricity, sewerage, cleaning and air conditioning. The common use of the underground residents will include a swimming pool, a cinema, a lounge area, a private hospital and a small zoo. And in the former Soviet bunker they want to make a repository for DNA samples: so that life on the planet, if something happens, it will be possible to try to "recreate".

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One of the most famous hideouts of our time is Tora Bora - a cave complex located in the Safedkhokh ridge (Afghanistan). In the Tora-Bora mountains and the surrounding Safedkhokh ridge, there are karst caves, which are formed naturally by dissolving limestone. Former "terrorist number one" Osama bin Laden significantly expanded and strengthened the caves. Nevertheless, the "invulnerable" hideout was taken by storm in 2001 by the United Anti-Taliban Front with the support of the international coalition.

The main question, of course, can be formulated as follows: why do we need such a shelter at all? The ideological inspirers of the project say that with its help it will be possible to defend against nuclear, bacteriological or chemical weapons. In addition, the shelter will allow you to survive in the event of natural disasters, such as earthquakes.

The organizers of the project prepared part of the premises back in 2015. The total cost of the complex is expected to exceed $ 1 billion. It is important to note that Robert Visino is not just a designer or an adventurer. Earlier, he already created a shelter in Indiana, which is designed for 80 people: there you can live autonomously for a year. The price of a "ticket" for an adult is US $ 50,000, for a child - US $ 35,000. In other words, in order to be saved, a family needs to pay about US $ 135–170 thousand. Vivos also helps create customized shelters. The price of one such complex is about 60 thousand dollars, and, as far as can be judged, this business is quite profitable. In any case, in the USA.

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Rocket silo bunker

Survival Condo Project is the name of the project created by the American designer Larry Hall. The bunker is located near the American town of Concordia, Kansas. There used to be a silo with an intercontinental ballistic missile, but now in its place is a comfortable bunker for 70 people, reaching a depth of fifteen floors. The facility is located at a depth of 174 meters. To make it clear, the deepest metro station in the world - Kiev Arsenalnaya - is located at a depth of 105.5 m.

The reinforced concrete walls of the bunker must withstand both a nuclear strike and all sorts of other "troubles". The front door weighs almost fourteen and a half tons. The structure is crowned with an overhead dome, which, although it will not save it from all troubles, can withstand wind forces of up to 800 km / h (the wind speed inside the tornado funnel is about 340 km / h). In addition to the "apartments" with all the amenities, the bunker has a swimming pool, library, cinema, hospital and school. Having reservoirs of water that will be supplied from underground sources, farms and powerful sources of power supply, the inhabitants of the bunker will be able to independently exist for five (or even more) years. In the 50s, the British, faced with a nuclear war with the USSR, decided to build a huge bunker in Wiltshire at a depth of about 36 m. According to the idea, in the event of a nuclear strike, about 4 thousand civil servants could be saved there. The bunker is reported to be one km long. The object remained secret long after the end of the Cold War - the bunker was declassified only in 2013.

Life in a bunker will, of course, be very different from life on earth. There are no windows here, so its residents will have to “enjoy” the views of reinforced concrete walls. But the creators of the Survival Condo Project tried to solve the problem by installing large electronic screens that show views of London, Paris and New York. If you wish, you can also consider nature, for example, oceans and forests, or something else. For all the amenities described, those wishing to survive the apocalypse laid out from 1.5 to 3 million dollars for an "apartment". The pleasure, frankly speaking, is not cheap. However, for today all vacant places in the bunker are sold out. He himself is guarded around the clock by armed people, and there are video cameras around the perimeter of the object.

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A budget option

Almost all the ideas described by us, with all their advantages, are united by one drawback - the price. But how can a person with no savings survive the end of the world? The American company Atlas Survival Shelter, which creates bunkers, offers its solution. “Shelters from $ 29,900,” reads the ad.

We are talking about a metal or plastic corrugated pipe, which is buried to a depth of 6-7 meters. The entrance is a small hatch with a ladder set at an angle of 30 degrees. Inside there are water tanks, bunk beds, kitchen, toilet. But, in general, $ 29,000 is the minimum package bundle. If the customer wants to equip the bunker, for example, with a TV or a simulator, they will have to pay extra. In addition to the living module, which provides a minimum level of comfort for several people, there is also a technical module: there is a generator and there is an emergency exit.

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One of the latest films to play on the theme of underground shelters is the American "Cloverfield, 10". The plot of the picture is focused not so much on the theme of a global catastrophe as such, but on the complexity of the relationship between people who find themselves in a closed space. One of the producers of this film - JJ Abrams - called it "blood relative" of the famous science fiction "Monstro", although the plot of the films is not connected in any way.

The refuge capsule does not look very attractive from the outside. But this is not the problem: because of the very cramped conditions and other restrictions inside, living in such a bunker will not work for a long time. But the creation of Atlas Survival Shelter will allow you to wait out the peak of the disaster underground for another day. If the consequences of the emergency can be quickly eliminated, then the bunker can save the lives of family members.

By the way, Atlas Survival Shelter also produces more complex shelters, but their cost will be incomparably higher than the most budget option. The company itself claims that they have been provided with orders for a very long time, which once again suggests that the issue of security is very relevant even in our conditionally "peacetime". Now there is a whole subculture of "survivors", or "survival" (from the English survive - to survive).Another name for these people is "preppers" (from English prepare - to prepare). In specially created closed communities on social networks, they are actively discussing possible scenarios for the end of the world. If reports are to be believed, many wealthy survivors have already acquired underground structures and weapons to defend themselves against intruders. And some allegedly even prepared flying vehicles in case of the apocalypse.

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The safest hideout

Of course, no earthly refuge, no matter how perfect, will provide 100% protection. Any door can be broken open, water nearby can be poisoned, and a direct hit from a nuclear warhead will at least disable part of the bunker's communications. Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences approached the solution of these problems in a very original way. Not so long ago they presented a project of a space shelter, which will be located on … the Moon. Why exactly a satellite of our planet? The fact is that there are no earthquakes or tsunamis on the moon. They want to build the premises in basalt rocks below the surface of the satellite. "Even the fall of an asteroid in the case of the Moon is statistically less dangerous than on Earth due to its lower mass and lack of atmosphere," the scientists themselves say.

The lunar hideout is seen not only as a possible hideout for financial tycoons, but also as a repository for books, scrolls, art canvases and wood products. In other words, the cultural heritage of the Earth. Moreover, the initiators of the project believe that in the largest premises of the refuge it will be possible to place basalt copies of Notre Dame, St. Basil's Cathedral, the Taj Mahal or the Egyptian pyramids.

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Scientists have even made a rough estimate of the volume of the lunar interior required to accommodate such large objects there. The matter is "small": you need to decide who will finance the project itself. Russian scientists are optimistic and hope that the aforementioned wealthy people looking for a safe haven may well sponsor the program. But so far this seems unlikely - the costs of building the facility and delivering goods and people there are too high. Only a few leading countries will be able to pull out such a "construction of the century", if, of course, they unite their efforts.

If we try to assess the situation as a whole, then one thing is clear: the creation of shelters in case of the end of the world will become more and more relevant every year. The growth of the planet's population, climatic changes and a shortage of resources are a real "explosive" mixture that generates local conflicts. Moreover, it is completely possible that one of them may sooner or later develop into a global war: then it will be too late to think about creating shelters.

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