The Battle of Herrings, Beaver Wars, and the Pineapple Manifesto

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The Battle of Herrings, Beaver Wars, and the Pineapple Manifesto
The Battle of Herrings, Beaver Wars, and the Pineapple Manifesto
Anonim

The battle of herring, the beaver wars, the war for Jenkins' ear, the pineapple manifesto are unusual historical facts.

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Beaver Wars

However, just about this "nickname" of a series of military conflicts of the second half of the 17th century, probably, many have heard. The main participants in the Beaver Wars were the Iroquois, French colonists and regular troops. The catchy name, of course, does not reflect the essence of these conflicts, being only a traditional designation.

Despite its relatively funny name, the Beaver Wars are considered one of the bloodiest episodes in North American history. The struggle was fought for life and death for the redistribution of hunting grounds and the right to trade in the Great Lakes and North Woodland. The main object of trade and the purpose of capturing territories was beaver fur. Recall that in those days, fur in Europe was literally worth its weight in gold. And, in general, one can hardly remember animals that would have as much influence on the course of history as beavers.

The Iroquois tribes attacked the French with all the ferocity they could. And they won. There were many reasons for this. First, the strategically advantageous geographical position of their territory, which was located in the valleys between the mountain ranges and Lake Ontario. Secondly, warriors from the Indians were trained from childhood, since women took upon themselves all the worries about food. And thirdly, the Iroquois have long exchanged their traditional weapons for firearms, which were supplied in large quantities by Europeans - the latter were also not averse to biting off the cake of trade with the Indians.

In 1701, the so-called Great Montreal Peace was concluded between the Iroquois and the French.

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Battle of herrings

Throughout history, battles have been fought mainly over territory, gold, or slaves. But there is a known case when people killed each other for an ordinary herring. The battle, however, did not arise from scratch - it took place during the so-called Hundred Years War (a series of military conflicts between England and France, which lasted from about 1337 to 1453).

The Battle of the Herring, the Battle of Herring, or the Battle of Rouvray (a village north of Orleans, France) - this is the name given to this battle, which took place on February 12, 1429 during the siege of Orleans.

A siege is not an easy task, food in it is worth its weight in gold. Therefore, when in February 1429 the British sent a wagon train loaded with herring (Great Lent began, and it was forbidden to eat meat) to their camp, besieging Orleans, the French, who learned about this, decided at all costs to intercept the precious provisions. However, they lost the battle, and the herring safely reached the stomachs of the English soldiers. By the way, from the same barrels with herring and carts, the British built a circular barricade, which also helped them win.

An interesting fact: the outcome of the herring battle was predicted by a young and then unknown girl named Jeanne d'Arc. Having achieved a meeting with the captain of the city of Vaucouleurs, she reported the outcome of the confrontation. A little later, the captain was told the details of the incident, and Jeanne went to Charles VII, accompanied by five soldiers. We can say that it was with the battle of the herring that one of the most legendary stories of the Middle Ages began. By the way, it is Jeanne who, as you know, will save Orleans from the siege of the British after a few months, thus earning the glory and love of the common people, as well as the nickname "The Maid of Orleans".

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Jenkins' ear war

This funny name refers to the colonial war between England and Spain, which was fought mainly in the Caribbean from 1739 to 1742, and then smoothly spilled over into the war for the Austrian succession (a long struggle of a number of European powers caused by an attempt to challenge the will of the Austrian Emperor Charles VI and to dismember significant possessions of the house of the Habsburgs in Europe).

The ironic name for the war was given after the captain of an English merchant ship Robert Jenkins presented his severed ear to the English parliament in 1738 - as evidence of the Spanish violence against English sailors. This was the formal reason for the start of the war, the real reason for which was, of course, associated with the struggle for commercial dominance in the New World: the war was fought for the colonies in the Caribbean.

Pineapple manifesto

The official and better known name of the document is more boring: the Imperial Manifesto (on the inviolability of autocracy), given by Emperor Alexander III on April 29 (May 11) 1881 - at the dawn of his reign.

From a letter from Konstantin Pobedonostsev, a conservative, jurist, writer and author of the draft document, dated May 4, 1881: “Among the local officials, the manifesto was greeted with despondency and some kind of irritation: I could not have expected such insane blinding. But all healthy and simple people are incredibly happy. There is jubilation in Moscow - yesterday it was read there in cathedrals and there was a thanksgiving service with triumph. From the cities comes news of universal joy at the appearance of the manifesto."

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Apparently, these "not very healthy", according to Pobedonostsev, people called the manifesto "pineapple" - thanks to the speech contained in the paper: "… and to entrust us with the sacred duty of the autocratic government."

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