Upskirt history: why sexual revolutions occur

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Upskirt history: why sexual revolutions occur
Upskirt history: why sexual revolutions occur
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"The sexual revolution was carried out by the back seats of cars," - said at one time American public figure Jerry Rubin. And I was wrong. The emancipation of morals took place long before the advent of machines, and many times. It resembles the movement of a pendulum. How and why did the "sex revolutions" take place and are we on the verge of a new round of sexuality, or are we waiting for a toughening of morality? About this - in our material.

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Sexual revolutions at all times have been a reflection of historical events and moods in society. To see these turns, you need to consider the entire historical process.

Stone Age: freedom of morals

It is difficult to talk about the behavior of people in such ancient times, but there is reason to believe that everything was fine with the forefathers' sexual freedom. It is enough to compare ethnographic data and look at modern traditional communities. And although direct analogies with ancestors cannot be drawn here, it is still possible to reason about their behavior on such a basis. So, among some tribes in Africa and South America, the virginity of the bride is not considered an advantage, as sometimes it is still in European countries, but a shame for the groom.

For example, there are customs from the central part of the Black Continent, when a girl was deprived of her virginity not by her future husband, but … by the oldest women of the clan (with a finger or a wooden knife). And in Southern Colombia it was done by the godfather (through intercourse), in Ziara or Congo - by the shaman or the leader of the tribe. This is another thing: in Central Africa, Oceania, South America and Indonesia, the bride was even … given away to be "mocked" by the groom's friends. And for a few days - to be sure. True, after the wedding, the wife had to remain faithful to her husband until the end of her days. And sometimes not only girls, but also young men became “victims”. In the west of the African continent, for example, there was a custom when a man had to have sex with his future mother-in-law, and then with her daughter.

We also have some archaeological data at our disposal. First of all, the so-called Paleolithic Venuses are figurines made of bone or soft rocks dating back to the Upper Paleolithic. They are found throughout Europe, but many are found in other parts of Eurasia as well. Figurines, as a rule, depict the female body with all its charms and in an extremely exaggerated form. Their purpose is unknown: they can probably be associated with the cult of fertility, but more daring hypotheses have been expressed - that Venus could serve as a kind of analogue of the modern Playboy magazine. Ancient images of a female vulva (or something very similar to it) are found on the walls of some caves in the same Europe.

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All this gives some reason to believe that our distant ancestors were hardly concerned with the problems of sexual morality - at least in the modern sense of the word. Sexuality is natural, otherwise there would be no point in coming up with any prohibitions on this score. Therefore, at the dawn of humanity, the maximum emancipation was probably common. Approximately the same, apparently, can be said about Ancient Egypt - in any case, they certainly did not suffer from hypocrisy. Sex is often elevated to a cult here: priestesses in the temples of the goddess Isis were publicly engaged in it (the phenomenon was called so - temple prostitution). The money received went to the benefit of the temple.By the way, they did the same in other parts of the world - Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, India.

Antiquity: asceticism and boys

In Ancient Greece, for the first time, they began to "tighten the screws." True, this did not happen immediately, and it mainly concerned women. An example of female chastity was the wife of the Roman patrician Tarquinius Collatinus - Lucretia. The young lady became famous for killing herself after being raped. But men, as usual, were not particularly forbidden to have love affairs on the side. Although in general it was about love for boys.

But antiquity is a long period, therefore, by the middle of the 2nd century BC, the pendulum again begins to move in the other direction, because Rome gets acquainted with the morality of the Eastern Hellenistic states, where morals were very liberated. But the sexual revolution did not take place immediately, but gradually.

One of its "apogee", it is believed, was the ascent to the throne of the Roman emperor Caligula. Many historians, however, are inclined to believe that the mores of Caligula resonated little with the mores of his predecessors: the only difference is that he simply did not hide his inclinations. And those were indeed specific. Declaring himself "a god on earth", Caligula was married four times and had numerous mistresses. Many of them were the wives of noble Romans.

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“He usually invited them [women] and their husbands to dinner, and when they passed by his bed, he examined them intently and slowly, like a slave trader, and if another in shame lowered her eyes, he lifted her face with his hand. Then, at the first desire, he left the dining room and summoned the one that he liked the most, and when he returned, still with traces of pleasure on his face, he loudly praised or scolded her, listing in detail what he found good and bad in her body. and how she was in bed. In the absence of their husbands, he sent a divorce to some of them on their behalf and ordered them to write it down in the register,”wrote the ancient Roman historian Guy Suetonius Tranquill about Caligula.

Ancient authors also claim that Caligula slept with his sisters and that she even gave birth to a child alone. The emperor, of course, also had homosexual relationships.

It is clear that such a ruler had appropriate subjects, including ordinary citizens. Historians report that at the time of the death of Pompeii, the city was drowning in debauchery: in this small settlement there were as many as 25 brothels (lupanarium), and even patrician women belonging to the ruling elite allegedly engaged in prostitution. But the end was near - Christianity appears.

The Middle Ages: Prohibitions and Their Violations

However, the end did not come immediately, and in many respects only the "facade" of the Middle Ages was painted with morality. From the inside, it seems, morals were much freer than is commonly believed. At least among noble people. Adultery in this environment was common, as were incestuous marriages. Cohabitation without marriage, prostitution and rape were not so rare. Among high-ranking persons, it was common to have illegitimate children - from maids and mistresses. But in general, of course, sex was allowed only for procreation, and the beauty of the body (especially the female) had to be hidden and even disfigured by pulling the breasts and putting pads under the belly in order to imitate a "little pregnancy" - the highest virtue of Christian morality. Hardly many observed this prohibition very zealously, but there was a veil of piety - the Church and the fanatics of the faith strictly followed this.

In France, for example, adultery was punished like this: a man and a woman who committed adultery had to run naked through the city. At the same time, a rope was tied to the male genital organ, which the woman held in her hand. There was another "funny" punishment: the man was undressed and put backwards on the donkey, after which they also rolled around the city. For sodomy they were punished with the death penalty (although in the early Middle Ages this was punishable only by many years of fasting and prayer).

Renaissance: career and bed

The Byzantine Empire finally fell under the onslaught of the Turks in 1453. The Byzantines fled to Europe, taking with them tomes, books and works of art, fanned by the era of Antiquity. Medieval Europe gets acquainted with the liberated customs of the Romans and their cult of nature - beautiful female and male bodies. The pendulum begins to move again - this time in the direction opposite to asceticism. That which had been suppressed for a long time could not but flow out like water from a seething cauldron. Puritan morality has set the teeth on edge. And the era of anthropocentrism began: humanism and science flourish, and sex ceases to be a shameful thing - not only among noble people, but also among ordinary people.

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The obligatory presence of official favorites and favorites of the monarchs is in vogue. Careers are done through bed. If we talk about Russia, then, as you know, Catherine the Great was distinguished by a special love for her favorites, who had a weakness for strong men. There is a legend according to which, in the absence of her lover Potemkin, the queen ran into a large muscular stoker in the corridor. She ordered him to light the fireplace in her bedroom. He kindled, but the "crazy empress" was not satisfied. "Don't you understand how to keep your Majesty warm?" She asked. He understood. For which the next morning he received the title of nobleman, thousands of peasants and the surname Teplov - in memory of how he warmed the empress.

Homosexuality has also become fashionable: having a craving for people of the same sex is no longer a sin, but a beautiful vice. Although for the most part this, of course, belonged to the upper class - ordinary people still did not practice "sodomy." But they liked prostitution. Although girls, of course, were prohibited from having sex before marriage (not everyone, however, observed this ban), young men could, in fact, do anything. And they usually had their first sex with a prostitute.

XX century: there is sex - there is no sex

But in the 19th century, the pendulum swung again in the direction of moral prohibitions. The Victorian era began, the brightest representative of which was the lady of the "strictest rules" - Queen Victoria. However, this state of affairs was short-lived. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries became an era not only of the industrial, but also of the sexual revolution, partially resulting from it. The suffragette movement was gaining momentum: a woman was finally declared a "man" and given her rights. Together with the right to freedom of speech, she receives the right to freedom of expression of her sexuality. This is especially evident in revolutionary Russia.

The ideologist of sexual freedom Alexandra Kollontai believes that from now on, sexual needs should be satisfied like a thirst - it is not worth making a "sacred cow" out of them. On the basis of this ideology, immediately after the coup d'etat in Russia, the society “Down with shame” and the famous theory of a glass of water appeared. The Bolsheviks declare love to be a convention, and marriage and flirting as remnants of the bourgeois era. Homosexuals and lesbians are no longer considered outcasts.

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But very soon, especially with the coming to power of Stalin, the mores become tougher. It does not go to extremes: a woman still "remains" a man (at least at the level of declarations), but sexual promiscuity is suppressed. After the death of the leader of the peoples, the situation softens a little, but not much - unconventional sex like oral and homosexual is condemned, as well as intercourse before marriage. In the late 1980s, the phrase (distorted from the original) from the Soviet-American teleconference by Vladimir Pozner and Phil Donahue - "there is no sex in the USSR" - which supposedly characterizes that era, even comes into use.

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The collapse of the Land of Soviets tore off the last lid from the seething cauldron of the liberated customs of the Soviet people. Sexuality is now pouring from everywhere - primarily from TV screens. The eyes are turned to the “free spirit” West (where sexuality won a crushing victory over strict morality in the 1970s), and in the 1990s Russia is undergoing a wave of a total sexual revolution, partly continuing to this day.True, she still did not win in our country and the states of the former USSR to the end: this is expressed in public condemnation of homosexuality and periodic exclamations about the prohibition of abortion and "moral licentiousness."

XXI century: back to the future

The movement of the pendulum is natural - the history is cyclical, including, as we can see, the history of sexual revolutions. If there was an explosion in the 1990s - logically, there should be a gradual decline in interest in sex in society. And in part we are already seeing this trend, including in women's fashion, which, as you know, is dictated by Europe. Fashion, by the way, cannot be underestimated: it serves as an expression of mood in society, as well as freedom or, conversely, enslavement of morals. So, for several years now, it is not short and bright “sticky” outfits that were so popular in the 1990s that have been “in trend”, but women's clothing of free and wide cut of restrained colors. Fashion historians even associate it with an oriental flavor, implying by this the puritanical customs of the East.

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Sexual counter-revolution, oddly enough, is also expressed in the sentiments of feminists (not to mention the ultra-right movements). The latter call for the prohibition of prostitution, and with it, to stop seeing a woman as an object (sex machine or cook), and not a subject (person, person). Such trends have already reached Russia and are becoming very popular among young people, as well as the older generation.

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