Homosexuality is conditioned by nature

Homosexuality is conditioned by nature
Homosexuality is conditioned by nature
Anonim

Homosexuality is found in both animals and humans. What are the reasons?

Homosexuality

As you know, bisexual behavior in the animal kingdom is quite common (many psychologists, by the way, believe that all human babies, both female and male, are bisexual from birth; the child, in principle, begins to realize his belonging to one or another sex, only in about three years old - NS). And some of the monkeys closest to us - bonobos - have a very developed female homosexuality. In this species of monkey, this behavior is due to the maintenance of friendly relations.

But most often, according to the famous Russian biologist, paleontologist and popularizer of science Alexander Markov, bisexual behavior can arise as a side effect of normal sexual behavior, as a certain mistake, and there is nothing special about it. Some males, for example, of certain amphibian species, are generally not very selective in choosing a mate and try to mate, in fact, with almost any moving object of approximately suitable size. Obviously, this is due to the fact that it is more important for these species not to miss their chance to leave offspring than to mate with someone who is not suitable for this purpose.

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But strictly homosexual relationships in the animal kingdom are very rare (as well as among people; usually those who call themselves homosexuals are actually bisexuals - NS). According to Alexander Markov, such homosexuality can also arise as a side effect, as a kind of error in monogamous relationships in species that are prone to the formation of stable attachments. Such species tend to mate for life, and if they mistakenly mate with a representative of the same sex, pure homosexuality may result.

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There are many hypotheses explaining bisexual behavior. Alexander Markov is inclined to the idea that homosexuality can be a side effect of the spread of some genetic variants that have some other positive effects. The fact is that each variant of a gene (allele) can influence many different traits. One gene - one trait - this is an extremely rare situation. Typically, each trait is influenced by many genes, and each gene is influenced by many traits. And therefore, among the effects of a given allele, there may be something useful and something harmful for a particular individual. “If there is more benefit from a beneficial effect than harm from a harmful one, then this allele is beneficial. Even if the benefits outweigh the harm only slightly,”says Alexander Markov.

There is an assumption that there are, for example, alleles that increase a woman's reproductive success, that is, women with this allele leave more offspring (the reasons may be different - such a woman can be sexier, more attractive, a better mother to her children, etc.).). This is the aforementioned benefit of this allele. But if the same allele enters the male body, it can increase the risk of developing homosexuality by a certain amount of percent. And this will be a negative effect of this allele, since the reproductive success of strict homosexuals, of course, is not high compared to heterosexual men.

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That is, if a woman with such an allele gives birth to boys, they will have an increased tendency to homosexuality (although this does not mean at all that they will become homosexual), and they may have less reproductive success. However, the same woman can give birth to girls who, thanks to this allele, will have a good "demand" for men. Thus, the harm of the allele is compensated.

Recall that human evolution is “indifferent” to the reproductive success of this or that individual; evolution is “important” to the success of the entire species as a whole.

The rector of the East European Institute of Psychoanalysis, Doctor of Psychology, Professor and Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation Mikhail Reshetnikov.

“No, after all, it's more likely Nature (responsible for the fact that this or that person becomes homosexual - NS), since in heterosexual patients we face exactly the same problems and exactly the same childhood traumas (including sexual injuries), but they still remain heterosexual,”writes Mikhail Reshetnikov in his book“Hetero, homo, neo, bi: parallel worlds”.

Probably, psychotraumas (such as seduction by adults of the same sex, etc.) affect the development of homosexuality in a particular person, but, apparently, not totally - this requires a natural tendency to such behavior.

“In general, if we want to remain on a humanistic position, we must objectively admit that homosexuals (from our point of view) are incurable, and from their point of view, they are healthy! Just like we are heterosexuals, - writes Reshetnikov. “… It is widely believed that they are almost abnormal. “They,” that is, everyone who is “not us,” is always abnormal. On the one hand, it is natural that we idealize heterosexuality. But psychopathologists are well aware that heterosexuality also in no way protects against psychopathological and other disorders. It must be admitted that no psychotherapy is capable of restoring heterosexual goals for homosexual patients, moreover, no psychotherapist has the right to specifically (explicitly or implicitly) impose his system of values, political or sexual preferences on patients."

According to Reshetnikov, he himself belongs to conservative heterosexuals, and, despite the fact that the following is unpleasant for him, nevertheless, based on the experience of his medical and psychotherapeutic practice, he expresses a cautious opinion that everything in our Russian society is the tendency towards bisexuality is more noticeable: "Bisexual practices are becoming not only more common and more often discussed, but also relatively accepted not only in some hypothetical form, but also in their real version, including those adopted by heterosexual spouses of bisexuals."

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The validity of such a phenomenon as homophobia, according to Mikhail Reshetnikov, can also be justified in its own way - "due to the same natural-conditioned need for the majority to care about themselves and their interests, and about the survival of the species." As Mikhail Mikhailovich has repeatedly stated in his interviews, he also has a rather negative attitude to such a phenomenon as gay pride parades: “I have a firm conviction that any manifestations of sexuality and one's choice are a deeply individual and very intimate question that does not imply publicity. ".

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