Americans on the Moon: Should We Doubt Further?

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Americans on the Moon: Should We Doubt Further?
Americans on the Moon: Should We Doubt Further?
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Much has been written and said about the lunar conspiracy. But everyone argues in favor of their position. We, without taking either side, will look at the situation with a neutral view and will try to figure out if there are still reasons for doubts.

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Official version

On July 20, 1969, the crew of the Eagle (Eagle) lunar module, consisting of two astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on a natural satellite of our planet. For the next almost five and a half hours after landing, the astronauts prepared for an early launch in case of an emergency, looked through the windows and shared their first impressions with the mission control center. Before going to the surface of the moon, Edwin Aldrin even managed to hold a short church service. Then, at an interval of 15 minutes, they descended the stairs to the surface. First Armstrong, then Aldrin.

The first and this time so far the only walk on the surface lasted only 2 and a half hours and contained all the activities that are supposed to be done by pioneers. The astronauts planted the US flag, collected samples of the lunar soil (21.55 kg) and placed scientific instruments on the lunar surface. True, the first thing Armstrong threw out the garbage accumulated during the flight. It was then that Neil Armstrong, stepping with one foot on the surface of the moon, and uttered his famous phrase: "This is one small step for man, but a giant leap for all mankind."

During their stay on the surface, Armstrong and Aldrin took over a hundred photographs of lunar landscapes and themselves against their background. True, they did not move far from the lunar module, only 60 meters. Immediately after returning, the astronauts began to prepare for takeoff. The first stay of people on the moon lasted a total of 21 hours 36 minutes 21 seconds. The third member of the Apollo 11 crew, Michael Collins, had been waiting for them all this time in circumlunar orbit in the command module. The Apollo space program was NASA's third manned space flight program. As part of the first - "Mercury" - the first suborbital and orbital space flights were performed by US citizens. During the second - "Gemini" - the Americans went into outer space for the first time.

In total, during the thirteen-year Apollo program, 6 successful lunar landings were made (the last one, Apollo 17, in 1972). The total cost of the entire program ranged from $ 20 to $ 25.4 billion. In modern prices, this is about $ 136 billion. As part of the program, 382 kg of lunar soil were delivered to Earth. In the last three lunar expeditions, astronauts not only walked on the lunar surface, but also moved in a two-seater electric vehicle developed by Boeing. During the last landing on the moon, the lunar rover managed to travel 36 km. There are six American flags left on the moon.

Arguments and counterarguments

Most of the arguments in favor of falsifying flights to the moon can be divided into two groups. The first group includes arguments based on photographic and video images obtained during lunar expeditions. The second group - these are statements about the technical impossibility of sending a person to the moon at that time.

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The absence of stars in the lunar sky, the American flag fluttering in a vacuum, and the unusual shadows of astronauts belong to the first group. All of them were easily refuted. The Stars and Stripes waving in the wind is just an illusion.The ripples on the surface of the canvas are not caused by the wind, but by damping vibrations that arose during its installation. If you look closely at video footage, such vibrations occur not only in flags, many other objects also wobble for a long time after astronauts have touched them.

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Lunar conspiracy theorists believe that NASA was unable to fake the view of the starry sky from the moon. We can say that they did not succeed in creating a planetarium in the pavilion of the film studio. But in fact, it is impossible to simultaneously photograph objects and stars illuminated by the sun. Of course, if you take a long exposure, you can photograph the stars. But then the astronauts illuminated by bright light, the lunar cabin, the flag and the lunar surface itself will turn out to be of very poor quality. But the Americans did not fly to the moon to photograph stars. The stars are not visible in many photographs taken from the International Space Station or from spaceships, but this is no reason to doubt their real existence.

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By the way, getting acquainted with this or that material about the lunar conspiracy, you should be careful. NASA employs people with a sense of humor. And they quietly laugh at this whole story with a lunar conspiracy. Take a look at the pictures below. The photo on the left clearly shows how two more of his colleagues are reflected in the glass of the astronaut's helmet. But this, of course, cannot be. There have never been more than two astronauts on the lunar surface; one has always remained in the command module in orbit. In fact, NASA photographer David Harland was just joking and combined the two photographs. However, in the version of skeptics, everything was just the opposite: the "extra" astronaut was retouched.

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The detected "bloopers" in the images convince the "humanities" well. But tech-savvy skeptics say that it was simply impossible to send a manned spacecraft to the moon in the late 60s and early 70s. How not to ponder here? The first man went into space in low earth orbit in 1961, and that was our Yuri Gagarin. And just 8 years later, in 1969, NASA sent the most difficult expedition to the moon. The American launch vehicle Saturn-5, created for flights to the moon, remains to this day the most payload and most powerful of all so far. Only now it is not used.

According to skeptics, the United States, then and now, does not have a rocket to fly to the moon. During the lunar race, we were not able to create such a rocket. And if there is no rocket, there is no flight. And yet, we were the first in space. And the Americans needed to reinforce their prestige. For this, it is believed, falsification was needed. In fact, all flights were made only to low earth orbit. The rest is staging.

Another critics' argument is that the Americans had little experience in space travel at all. It is especially popular in our country. After all, we were originally the first. The first artificial satellite of the Earth is ours. Our man was the first in orbit and the first in outer space. The first soft landing on the moon of an automatic interplanetary station in 1966 is also ours ("Luna-9"). And to believe that at some point the Americans have overtaken us is quite difficult and bitter.

But, strictly speaking, American astronauts did have flight experience. One has only to look closely at the history of NASA manned flights, and everything falls into place. It was slightly less intense than ours. One such argument by skeptics is that astronauts had little experience in orbiting spacecraft docks. But during the flight, they had to complete one of the important stages of the mission - rebuilding.

When rebuilding, the command and service module is separated from the third stage and the lunar module, retracted 30 meters forward, turns towards it with its "nose", and then, after approaching, docks. Otherwise, astronauts simply will not be able to get into the descent part of the ship.There is, however, another option: to go through open space, but it is provided only for emergencies. It is difficult to do this without having experience in such events. But in fact, NASA astronauts have already had eight successful docks in space, starting with the Gemini program and ending with Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Repeatedly this part of the expedition was practiced on simulators during preparation for flights.

What remains unanswered

Most of the arguments of the supporters of the lunar conspiracy find a well-founded refutation. But some aspects of the expedition make you think. The first is radiation protection. Radiation radiation from the Sun is detrimental to humans. Radiation is one of the main obstacles to space exploration. For this reason, even today all manned flights pass no further than 500 kilometers from the surface of our planet.

At this altitude, astronauts are protected by radiation belts, which absorb the streams of charged particles coming from the Sun, and the partially rarefied atmosphere that is still present at these altitudes. Flights outside the radiation belts are dangerous for spacecraft crews if they are not provided with reliable radiation shielding. But the very passage of the radiation belts is a great danger. But the Moon, unlike our planet, does not have its own radiation belts. And she also has no atmosphere.

For this reason, both in a manned spacecraft and in a spacesuit on its surface, astronauts had to receive a lethal dose of radiation. However, they are all alive. In theory, you can protect yourself from radiation. After all, we protect, for example, the personnel of nuclear power plants. The question is what kind of protection can be sufficient for such a flight. Cosmic radiation is not only an obstacle to the flight to the moon. When flying to Mars, it is even more dangerous. One of the methods of protection can be the creation of a protective magnetosphere with a diameter of several hundred meters around the spacecraft flying to Mars. The mini-magnetosphere project is being carried out by an international group of scientists from the British laboratory of Rutherford and Appleton.

Of course, there is an explanation for the flight to the moon without consequences. The flight trajectory of the manned spacecraft was chosen so as to pass the radiation belts in their "thinnest" place. And the flight took only a few hours. Both the thickness of the walls of the ship and the protection of the spacesuits were consistent with the level of radiation. Although according to some estimates (again, skeptics), to protect astronauts from cosmic radiation, the walls of a ship and a spacesuit are needed at least 80 cm thick, made of lead, which, of course, did not exist. No rocket can lift such a weight. However, if in reality a short flight outside the Earth's radiation belts does not pose a serious danger to astronauts, then why have there been no other manned missions outside the radiation belts until now?

As already mentioned, 382 kg of lunar soil and stones were delivered from the lunar surface. Yes, unmanned space stations cannot collect and deliver so many soil samples to Earth. But then where are they? The basic version is as follows: most of the soil samples remain intact until new, more advanced ways of studying them are developed. I wonder what else NASA wants to learn about the Moon by examining the stored soil samples? And will they not lose their "lunar" properties, being so long in terrestrial conditions?

Well, the most interesting thing in this story is that, preparing for the 40th anniversary of the landing on the moon, NASA suddenly discovered the loss of the original film footage with footage of the landing of astronauts. It would seem that such films are not only a fact of pride of Americans and proof of the superiority of the American nation, but also the property of all mankind.So that the public would not be too worried about the loss of such valuable material, NASA said that the originals were probably already unusable anyway, since they had collapsed from long storage. That is, for the films, testifying to one of the most significant moments in the history of mankind, the necessary storage conditions were not created?

Latest evidence

It would seem that it is worth sending a powerful ground-based telescope or, for example, the orbiting Hubble to the Moon, and the whole question will disappear by itself. And six flags erected during expeditions, and launch sites, and other material evidence of astronauts staying on the lunar surface can be photographed and shown to the public. True, if someone does not believe in the photographs and videos already taken, then even such proof will not be an argument for him. Certainly, these new images will also contain “inconsistencies”. Here are just the resolving power of terrestrial telescopes and the atmosphere of our planet do not yet allow us to detect traces of the presence of American expeditions on the moon. Their sizes are too small. And the same "Hubble" has a smaller mirror diameter than many terrestrial telescopes.

But it was like that before. The inability to see the traces of American astronauts from Earth or from space has long fueled doubts among skeptics. Today, the satellite of our planet is again attracting more and more attention. Not only the United States, but also India, Japan and China are sending automatic probes into lunar orbit. Since 2009, the American automatic interplanetary station LRO has been in circumlunar orbit, one of the goals of which is to photograph the lunar surface. Including places associated with human activities. Not only, by the way, the landings of the Apollo manned lunar modules, but also automatic stations, craters formed as a result of falling spacecraft, rocket stages, and so on. And such pictures were taken. But even for this, the LRO orbit was temporarily lowered from the usual 50 km above the lunar surface to 21.

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But it would be surprising if these pictures were not called falsification. Dissections of these images are presented on the Web, no less detailed than those taken on the Moon more than 40 years ago. Their authors wonder why the traces of the lunar car are visible more clearly than the car itself, and how they were not drifted by dust storms at all. Why are traces of Soviet lunar rovers not visible at the same time? Anyway, the pictures are "muddy and illegible." Although, in general, the supporters of the lunar conspiracy have less and less arguments. New flights to the Moon by robotic probes from other countries will bring new images of the Moon's surface with astronaut tracks. And photographing the traces of NASA astronauts on the moon is no less interesting than natural lunar objects, both for scientists and for ordinary people. The lunar conspiracy theory warms up interest in our neighbor no less than it could be when looking for life on her.

A serious, albeit indirect, argument against the lunar conspiracy theory can be the incredible scale of the required falsification. It can only be justified if there are truly insurmountable obstacles to manned flights to the Moon, for example, such as space radiation. In the process of falsifying NASA, it would be necessary not only to film the landing of six lunar expeditions on the lunar surface in the pavilions, but also all broadcasts from orbit. Besides, "scatter" over the surface of our satellite numerous artifacts of astronauts' stay, from a bag of trash to scientific instruments. After all, sooner or later, astronauts from other countries would also have flown to the moon. NASA could not help but think about this. In addition, we still use the scientific instruments left on the moon. It would be very expensive to do this with secretly launched automatic stations.In addition, a large amount of lunar soil could be collected with the help of automatic stations, not to mention the parts of the Surveyor spacecraft, which the astronauts took with them to test how they were affected by cosmic radiation. And, finally, to ensure the silence of thousands of participants in such a large-scale falsification.

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In fact, after receiving images from the surface, there was only one unused argument for refuting the lunar conspiracy theory - to fly to the moon again. The only question is who and when will fly there? The Americans themselves will revive their lunar program and fly to the moon again. Or maybe China, India, or finally Russia?

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