This cold desert world may someday become a second home for humanity. Of course, conditions on Mars will never be as heavenly as on Earth, but the fourth planet from the Sun is somewhat similar to ours: the climate on Mars is seasonal, there are polar caps, volcanoes, canyons and even an atmosphere.
Earth has one, Mars has two. We are talking, of course, about natural satellites. In 1877, the American astronomer Asaf Hall discovered two comparatively small satellites near the Red Planet. They were named after the ancient Greek gods Phobos ("fear") and Deimos ("horror") - the companions of the god of war Ares (that is, Mars).
Mars is the fourth largest planet in the solar system (after Mercury, Venus and Earth) and the seventh largest planet in the solar system (its diameter is 6792 km). It is twice as large as the Moon and as much smaller than the Earth.
Due to the fact that the gravity on Mars is much lower than on Earth, your weight on the Red Planet will be 62% less than the current one. That is, a person weighing 100 kg on Mars will weigh only 38 kg.
Mass is a quantity that measures the amount of a substance in a body. The mass of Mars is approximately one tenth of the mass of the Earth.
The distance between Mars and Earth is constantly changing, since both of these planets move in their orbits at different speeds, now approaching, then moving away from each other. The minimum possible distance from Earth to Mars is about 55 million km, the maximum is 401 million km, and the average is 225 million km.
Temperatures on Mars can reach +20 ° C and drop to -153 ° C. It all depends on the time of day and year. The climate on Mars is much colder and drier than Earth, and the main reason for this is the distance from the Sun to the Red Planet.
Like Earth, Mars has a crust, mantle, and core. It is assumed that the average thickness of the planet's crust is 50 km. A silicate mantle several hundred kilometers thick envelops a small core, which has a mass of about 5-9% of the total mass of the planet.
Gravity on the surface of Mars is much less than on Earth. If you were standing on the Martian surface, you would only feel a third of Earth's gravity. In this regard, you, for example, could jump 3 times higher than on Earth.
Take a deep breath. What did you just inhale? Nitrogen, oxygen and a mixture of other gases. To get the same amount of oxygen on Mars as you get from one breath on Earth, you have to take about 14,500 breaths. The atmosphere of Mars is one hundred times inferior in density to the earth's. Carbon dioxide makes up approximately 96% of the planet's atmosphere. In addition, it also contains some nitrogen, argon and oxygen.
The volume of Mars is 15% of the volume of the Earth, so if you suddenly decide to fill our planet with Mars, you will need more than 6 Red planets.