We present to you the top of the most advanced robots. Our list includes robots participating in the DARPA Robotics Challenge and many other developments such as BigDog
Let's start with the recent finalist, DRC-HUBO, created by experts from the Korea Leading Science and Technology Institute (KAIST). He won the 2015 Pentagon-sponsored DARPA Robotics Challenge. The participating robots were semi-autonomous. This means that the teams could correct the actions of their “protégés” during the fight. Most of the tasks were known in advance, and the device software was programmed accordingly.
The robot of the South Korean team Team Kaist in a difficult struggle defeated 24 of its competitors, representing different countries, and took with him 2 million dollars as a prize. It took DRC-HUBO 44 minutes to complete all the tasks, during which he managed to score the maximum eight points. Not all competitors posed a danger to the brainchild of KAIST: there were many curious cases at the competition when some robots hung or fell literally in an equal place. Generally speaking, the DARPA Robotics Challenge cannot be called "interesting": it took too long for the machines to complete the assigned tasks. But the competition certainly made its contribution to scientific and technological progress.
One of the reasons for the victory of DRC-HUBO is the wheels fixed on the "knees". He can stand on them and develop a good (in comparison with other similar developments) speed. Due to special software, the robot receives a three-dimensional map of reality and can interact with the outside world. He is able to overcome obstacles and move up stairs. The DRC-HUBO can reach objects above it while maintaining balance. The upper part of the robot rotates 180 degrees, while the lower part remains in place.
The height of the development is 180 cm, and it weighs 80 kg. Such robots can be very useful in disaster relief. However, DRC-HUBO is unlikely to be able to completely replace a person. At least for now.
Other participants in the DARPA Robotics Challenge included the Atlas robot created by the American engineering company Boston Dynamics and used by the IHMC team. It was introduced back in 2013. This giant (height - 190 cm, weight - 175 kg) can even now act in science fiction films. True, the humanoid robot looks creepy. But he knows how to run over rough terrain, carry loads on his hands and overcome obstacles.
The first modification was replaced by the second - "wireless". Having a lithium-ion battery with a capacity of 3.7 kilowatt-hours and a variable pressure pump, the robot is able to perform tasks in an autonomous mode for an hour. Hydraulic, mechanical and thermal drives are used for movement. Three on-board computers are responsible for the perception and planning of tasks. Atlas has got pretty strong joints, and its wrists can rotate freely: this, in particular, helps to open doors. Boston Dynamics recently released a robot for a walk through the woods. It looks, of course, very impressive, but the engineers still have to sweat over the gait.
What tasks can such a machine solve? First of all, we are talking about search and rescue operations. Atlas is capable of handling valves, opening / closing doors and carrying equipment. He can act for quite a long time in conditions under which an ordinary person would have died long ago. As for the military use, so far the US Department of Defense does not see him as a potential soldier.
And this humanoid robot can become a full-fledged member of the crew of a warship. Experts from the Virginia Polytechnic University and the University of Pennsylvania took part in its development.SAFFiR (Shipboard Autonomous Fire-Fighting Robot) can come in handy when it comes to a fire on a ship or warship. The prototype has already been tested on board the Shadwell vessel. To protect the vulnerable electronics, a special waterproof suit was put on him, and with the help of a hose, the robot was able to successfully extinguish the fire. To detect it, the machine uses a thermal imager, lidar, and a number of other devices. So far, the SAFFiR is not fully autonomous and requires remote control to operate. In the future, he will act on his own according to the situation (having previously received certain commands).
The SAFFiR weighs 64 kg and is 178 cm tall. Engineers will gradually improve their brainchild. In addition to the autonomous mode, the robot will have additional functionality: the device will be able, for example, to transfer and unfold hoses. A miniature reconnaissance drone can become his assistant. He will be able to "squeeze" where it will be difficult for a large two-legged robot to pass. Tests have proven the effectiveness of pairing, and the US Navy is now considering purchasing such robots with their little flying partners. In the future, SAFFiR will become more stable and reliable, learn to recognize gestures and voice commands. If all ideas are successfully implemented, nothing will prevent you from using the robot to solve a wide range of tasks (and not just when extinguishing a fire).
Of course, robots may not only be human-like: some have caterpillars, four, six, or even eight legs. Perhaps the most famous "zoomorphic" combat robot of our day is BigDog. It was developed by Boston Dynamics and a number of other organizations. The Big Dog has adaptive control and can provide invaluable assistance to soldiers, delivering cargo to hard-to-reach places. Perhaps it looks less impressive than its later (the robot was created in 2005) two-legged "brothers". But this approach is more practical and economical. Anyway, if we are talking about using robots on the battlefield and carrying heavy things.
The BigDog is 0.91 m long, 0.76 m high and weighs 110 kg. The speed of movement on rough terrain is 6.4 km per hour, and it can carry 154 kg of cargo. The robot moves due to a two-stroke single-cylinder engine from a sports kart, and four electric motors are installed at its feet. There are also sensors that help to analyze the environment.
Later, Boston Dynamics developed a robot similar to BigDog, but larger in size. LS3 (Legged Squad Support System) can carry up to 180 kg of cargo at a distance of up to 32 km, as well as recognize simple human commands such as "follow me", "uphill" or "cross the stream". Such robots as CHEETAH and Spot also became representatives of the "four-legged" family. Some of the machines described have successfully passed field tests, but whether they will be in demand is a question. The developers will probably need to make a lot of improvements.
This little six-legged and tailed robot looks dull compared to other Boston Dynamics creations, but it can do what they can't. Namely - to climb the walls. RISE weighs 2 kg, and its length is 0.25 m. There are special attachments at the tips of the legs of the device, which, depending on the surface, can be sticky or sharp. Sharp claws, in turn, can be small or large. The robot is able to automatically adapt to any surface, be it a wall of a house, a tree or a fence. The tail helps maintain balance, and each paw has two built-in electric motors. The slope of the surface and many other characteristics are determined by the on-board computer. However, RISE has one important limitation: its speed does not exceed 0.3 m / s.
This is not a complete list of the most advanced robots presented today. Most likely, in the coming years we will see many more interesting novelties from the world of robotics.The main thing is that the prophecies of the mighty of this world about artificial intelligence remain just horror stories for the younger generation and we do not encounter something similar in real life.
Battle of the century
Kuratas and Mark-2. These giant robots, of course, have nothing to do with artificial intelligence. In fact, we have in front of us only large toys controlled by people. Yet the alleged battle between the two massive robots has drawn the attention of millions around the world. On the one hand, an American robot from MegaBots, on the other, a Japanese Kuratas, created by Suidobashi Heavy Industries. The first weighs 6 tons, the second - 4, 5. A robot from the USA can shoot giant paintball cannonballs, and Kuratas carries fake machine guns and rocket launchers that can launch fireworks.
However, all this "terrible" arsenal in battle may not be needed: the Japanese agreed to a duel only on condition that a hand-to-hand duel was included in it. “Well, everyone will die someday,” American engineers commented on their decision. The details of the upcoming "battle of the century" have not yet been reported, but the Americans are already busy raising funds to modernize their brainchild.