On the left is the steppe, above is the forest, below is the sands, on the right is the mountains. East Kazakhstan is called "the continent, compressed to the limit", Rudny Altai, the "pearl" of the country. At the extreme outpost of the Altai "Sinegorye" is the Kalbinsky mountain range - a repository of ancient monuments. One of them is the Ak-Baur tract: a unique astronomical complex of the Neolithic era.
Clay Kazakh huts, wooden Russian houses. The village with the Kazakh name Sagyr was once Leninka.
- Can you tell me where is Mount Korzhimbai, do we need Ak-Baur? - leaning half out of the car, I turn to a young Kazakh woman, whose plump uniforms are willingly showing off a white T-shirt with the inscription: “I’m star” and black breeches.
“I don’t know,” she dismisses with the intonation of slight indignation characteristic of the village Kazakhs.
Paradoxically, the Kalbinsky mountain range has been so little explored that not everyone knows about its heritage even in Kazakhstan, let alone the rest of the world. But these mountains have been home to people of the Stone Age since time immemorial, therefore the cakes of the local rocks are literally covered with petroglyphs, and the earth's bowels store burial grounds, tools, remnants of settlements and mine workings.
This is how the name Ak-Baur is sometimes translated. However, the "Concise Kazakh-Russian Dictionary" gives as many as three translations of the word "bauyr": liver, blood relative and slope, the sole of the mountain. It is on the slope of one of the hills that there is a grotto with rock paintings made, according to some assumptions, with red ocher, according to others, with the blood of sacrificial animals. There are no other paintings of this color anywhere else in East Kazakhstan.
For the first time this tract was discovered by the famous Kazakhstani poet and artist Yevgeny Kurdakov. He called it "an open-air temple." In his opinion, the ancient architects laid in the structure of the Ak-Baur complex a model of the way to save mankind in the last ice age. Neither more nor less. But it is not surprising: everyone knows that the mountains were the object of reverence for many early cultures, being considered the abode of the gods. Let us recall at least Olympus, Ararat, Sinai, Fujiyama, the legendary White Mountain from the Celts, Crystal from the Slavs, or the emerald Safu from the Muslims. It seems that this list is destined to replenish the Korzhimbay mountain, which is in the Ak-Baur tract.
After passing the village of Sagyr, we turn onto a country road that leads to the mountains.
In just seven minutes, and the road ends with a settlement of exactly three huts and stables for horses, next to which there is an assortment of drying children's tights, mostly red and blue. From behind the red and blue garland, a grimy Kazakh boy of five years old immediately appears and, without blinking, looks at us.
- Adults at home?
- Right now, right now! - straightening the scarf on her head as she ran, a dark-skinned woman jumps out from the porch of the house.
The woman's name is Gulya. She gets into our car, shows the way to Ak-Baur and says that she is a cashier and collects money for entering its territory.
Ak-Baur is an official historical monument, and soon we really drive up to a long fence that goes into the mountains on both sides. In the middle of the fence there is a gate and a cash register, which looks like a Soviet tin stall for selling soda. The state does not have extra money for the protection and improvement of historical sites.
- But even though it has become clean, they are cleaning it, - Gulya hands us the entrance tickets.
And also next to the rock paintings of the ancestors of the Stone Age, drawings of contemporaries ceased to appear.
Ak-Baur is big, downright huge.There are many petroglyphs and other interesting things here. But the most interesting thing is, of course, the grotto with the same name.
In the beginning there was a petroglyph
There is a heart-shaped hole in the dome of the grotto. Along the edges of it there are traces of manual processing. Apparently, our ancestors deliberately gave the natural hole in the rock the shape of a heart.
Many researchers believe that this "heart" was needed in order to observe the starry sky. And someone believes that the ancient priests performed rituals here, after which new signs appeared on the walls of the grotto. The latter, by the way, are the most that neither is the sources of the most ancient writing. About eighty drawings have survived to this day: several images of humans, animals, drawings of dwellings and carts, various symbols and signs, and someone, of course, sees aliens, spacesuits and spaceships in these petroglyphs. Not without it.
Based on the research of Nicholas Roerich, the discoverer of Ak-Baur, the poet and ethnographer Yevgeny Kurdakov, spoke about these mysterious signs in the following way: “Ancient people did not have aesthetics at all. An absurd term - primitive art. There was no art then. All spiritual life was subject to rituals. The old shaman, muttering ancient incantations, wrote these signs. Many are looking for miracles on Easter Island, unaware that the greatest mystery is spread across Eurasia. In Altai there is a huge amount of boreal, that is, created seven thousand years ago, writing. Boreal is the time of the formation of writing. In this system, there were only 22 characters, but they became the basis of all the alphabets of the world. The painting in Ak-Baur is an example of the oldest writing in the world. This painting was made at the end of the Ice Age. The Tower of Babel collapsed, the peoples scattered across the planet, left the common language ritual and began to speak in different languages. But in order to preserve the memory of the path that humanity passed, the priests used the boreal sign system. The priests of all Eurasia used this system to record the way the people had traveled. The inscription of the Ak-Baur grotto indicates the landmark of the saving path - along the Irtysh. For people who lived in the immemorial times of the Wurm Ice Age, when life hung literally by a thread, such a landmark had, in essence, a sacred meaning."
The grotto contains many crosses of various sizes and configurations. Crosses are signs of the Sun. Therefore, researchers are still inclined to think that before us is a map of the starry sky. It is incomplete, but important for the southwest orientation of the sanctuary.