There are a great many scientists who have left their indelible mark on the history of science. Today we will tell only about three undeniable geniuses and their characters.
Little is known about Galileo's childhood. It is known that from the youngest nails the little genius was attracted to art. All his life he adored music and drawing - both he mastered perfectly. By the way, when Galileo was already in his years, the best painters of Florence, such as Cigoli and Bronzino, came to him for advice on perspective and composition. And Chigoli even said that it was Galileo's advice that made him a famous artist. Galileo's writings also testify to the fact that he had a serious literary gift.
The "first modern physicist" finished elementary school at the Vallombrosa monastery. The future brave philosopher was very fond of studying, it is not surprising that he became one of the first students in the class. The most interesting thing is that in those years, Galileo even considered the possibility of becoming a priest. Fortunately or unfortunately, his father was against it. Perhaps his father, like Galileo himself in the future, was also not devoid of common sense (which was a rarity at all times, and even more so in those distant ones), so the future scientist had someone to take an example from.
Galileo was a staunch rationalist. He always knew that the laws of nature are quite comprehensible to the human mind.
“I affirm that the human mind knows certain truths as perfectly and with such absolute certainty as nature itself has; - he wrote in his book "Dialogue about two systems of the world" - such are the pure mathematical sciences, geometry and arithmetic; although the Divine mind knows infinitely more truths in them … but in those few that the human mind has comprehended, I think his knowledge is equal in objective certainty to the Divine, for it comes to an understanding of their necessity, and the highest degree of certainty does not exist."
Galileo's mind is free, he is his own judge:
“It seems to me that when discussing natural problems we should start not from the authority of the texts of Holy Scripture, but from sensory experiences and the necessary evidence … I believe that everything concerning the actions of nature, which is accessible to our eyes or can be understood by logical evidence, should not arouse doubts, let alone be condemned on the basis of the texts of Holy Scripture, perhaps even misunderstood. God is no less revealed to us in natural phenomena than in the utterances of Holy Scripture … It would be dangerous to ascribe to Holy Scripture any judgment, at least once challenged by experience. "
Darwin was born in the English city of Shrewsbury on February 12, 1809. Darwin's mother died when he was about eight years old. If you believe the memories of loved ones of the future genius naturalist, little Charles was a very mediocre student and a completely naughty boy. His sister Caroline, being, in the words of Darwin himself, “extremely kind, capable and diligent,” nevertheless tried too often to educate him: “For even now I distinctly remember how, entering the room where she was, I said to myself: "And why will she start scolding me now?" And I stubbornly decided to treat with complete indifference to everything, whatever she said."
However, by the time little Charles stepped on the doorstep, he had already developed a taste for natural history and collecting. Little Darwin was busy trying to figure out the names of various plants and collecting everything that could be collected: shells, coins, seals and minerals. Interestingly, neither his brother nor his sister had the same passion for collecting.However, do not forget that the fifth of the six children of a wealthy doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Suzanne Darwin, née Wedgwood, Charles was the grandson of the naturalist Erasmus Darwin on the paternal side and the artist Josiah Wedgwood on the maternal side. So Darwin clearly had the ground for the development of genius.
And young Charles was a real liar and a dreamer. In his own words, he always tried to surprise others. One day he told his friend, a little boy, that he was able to grow polyanthuses and primroses (types of flowers - NS) of different colors, pouring them with multi-colored liquids.
The little naturalist's pranks did not end there. The great father of the theory of evolution in his time shamelessly stole its immediate fruits - neighboring fruits: “At about this time or at a somewhat earlier age, I sometimes stole fruits to feast on myself, and I did it quite ingeniously. The vegetable garden, which was locked in the evening, was surrounded by a high wall, to the crest of which I could easily climb up the neighboring trees. Then a rather capacious flower pot with a long stick fixed in the hole at the bottom was used: I brought it to the peaches and plums ready to fall, which fell into the pot at the same time, and dragged the pot up - the desired prey was secured.
Darwin had already graduated from high school, and his genius, it seems, was in no hurry to show himself. His teachers and father considered him a very ordinary student, and his intellectual level was even assessed below average.
“I was very upset when my father said to me:“You don't think about anything except hunting, dogs and catching rats; you will disgrace yourself and our entire family!”writes Darwin. "But my father, the kindest man in the world, whose memory is infinitely dear to me, saying this, was probably angry with me and not entirely fair."
Meanwhile, his father, it seems, really was a good man. The main features of his character, according to Charles Darwin himself, were the rarest observation and sympathetic attitude towards people: “I do not know anyone who possessed these qualities to a greater extent than he, or at least to the same extent. He was sympathetic not only to other people's misfortunes, but, even more so, to the joys of those around him. And I always tried to figure out how to please others."
By the end of his life, even the thought of having an operation caused Darwin's father a lot of suffering (and this, despite the fact that Robert Darwin was known as a very successful doctor). Apparently, Charles's father was a very gentle man, not devoid of, perhaps, philosophical views, therefore, despite some strict remarks, in fact, he did not at all prevent his son from walking the path that he liked: “But the most remarkable ability father had his ability to define character and even read in the minds of people with whom he encountered at least for a short time. We knew many examples of this ability of his, and some of them seemed almost supernatural … A passionate enemy of drunkenness, he was convinced that in the overwhelming majority of cases the systematic consumption of alcohol, even if in moderation, causes harm, both direct and inherited … He himself never took a drop of alcohol into his mouth."
And Robert Darwin was also a very sensitive person, he could be upset even on the most insignificant reasons. He was easily angry, but since, according to his son, “his kindness knew no bounds,” people loved Robert very much, and with all their hearts.
“I don’t think I got much from him intellectually,” Darwin continues. “But his moral behavior had a big impact on all of his children. One of his golden rules (although it was not easy to follow this rule) was the following: "Never enter into friendship with a person you cannot respect."
Recalling his school years, Darwin writes that the only qualities that already at that time gave him hope for something brighter in the future were strong and varied interests, great zeal in what he was interested in, and a keen sense of pleasure. what he felt at those moments when he understood certain complex questions or subjects: “I was introduced to Euclid by a private teacher, and I distinctly remember how deeply satisfied I was with clear geometric proofs. I also clearly remember the pleasure my uncle (Francis Galton's father) gave me by explaining to me the device of the vernier in the barometer."
Charles Darwin also loved to read. He sat for hours absorbing the historical dramas of Shakespeare, Byron, Scott, Thomson. However, in the last years of his life, according to Darwin himself, for some reason he lost all interest in poetry, even in Shakespeare's poetry.
While still in elementary school, he came across the book "The Wonders of the World", which belonged to his friend. It is about this book that Darwin writes as the one that played a fatal role in his passion for science and "for the first time gave him the desire to travel to distant countries."
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879. His father, Hermann Einstein, at that time was a co-owner of a small business for the production of feather stuffing for mattresses and featherbeds (he later organized a small company selling electrical equipment), and his mother, Pauline Einstein (née Koch), came from the family of a very wealthy corn trader.
The future physicist finished primary classes at a local Catholic school. But contrary to popular myth, Einstein was not a believer at all. As he himself recalls, he really experienced a state of deep religiosity, but it happened in deep childhood - young Albert stopped believing in God at the age of 12. And this happened after the boy became interested in popular science literature, having come to the conviction that much of what is described in the Holy Scriptures cannot be true. Such conclusions glorified him as a "freethinker", and at the same time forever made him a skeptic in relation to all kinds of authorities.
At the age of six, Einstein began to play the violin. This passion for music will remain with the great physicist for life. Especially the genius loved the works of the 18th century, was heard by Bach, Mozart, Schumann, Haydn and Schubert, and in the last years of his life - by Brahms. From literature he loved Leo Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Dickens, and Brecht's plays. He was also fond of philately, gardening, sailing on a yacht (he even wrote material about the theory of yacht management).
Contrary to another legend, at the gymnasium, Albert was one of the most talented students. However, the subjects that were not easy for him really were - mathematics and Latin. In addition, even then the young and progressive Einstein was very irritated by the rigid system of mechanical cramming of material, which, as he later said, ruins the very spirit of learning, and with it, creative thinking. I could not stand the free-thinking genius and the authoritarian attitude of teachers, so I often entered into disputes with them.
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, Einstein came to Switzerland to enter the Higher Technical School (Polytechnic) in Zurich, becoming a physics teacher. Having brilliantly passed the mathematics that was not given to him in his time, he failed the exams in botany and French. And that is why I did not enter the Zurich Polytechnic. Later, however, he entered there again - and this time quite successfully.
But before that, he still had to get a certificate at the Aarau cantonal school. There he will receive not only a certificate, but also get acquainted with his future wife - a student of the Faculty of Medicine, Serbian Mileva Maric.
The style and methodology of teaching at the Polytechnic liked the progressive young man Albert - they differed significantly from the authoritarian and immobile system of the Prussian school.Einstein recalled his first-class teachers - the geometer Hermann Minkowski (Einstein often missed his lectures, and later sincerely regretted this) and the analyst Adolf Hurwitz.
However, even here Einstein managed to be not happy with everything and constantly showed his independence. He passed the exams successfully, but not brilliantly. And despite the fact that many teachers highly appreciated the abilities of the graduate of Albert, not everyone loved him precisely because of his overly independent views. “I was bullied by my professors, who did not like me because of my independence and blocked my path to science,” Einstein later recalled.
In the following years, Einstein rushed about in search of work, and sometimes even went on hunger strike for several days. All this became the cause of liver disease, from which he suffered for the rest of his life.
Undoubtedly, Albert Einstein was an extremely purposeful person - later, as you know, he overcame all these difficulties. However, throughout all the difficult years, his faithful friend, Mileva Marich, was with him.
By the way, this woman was not at all home, she did not have a special love for housekeeping and other everyday concerns of women. She was passionate about physics. This was the only female student on the course who studied with Einstein. Moreover, she was very gifted. But, in the end, she exchanged science for motherhood and the home life of the Einstein family, although at first she resisted all this. In 1904, the couple had a son, Hans-Albert, and in 1910, a second son, Edward, was born. There was, probably, another child - born before marriage with Mileva, and from her. It was a girl, about whose fate little is known; perhaps she died in deep childhood.
However, Einstein, as you know, did not appreciate Mileva's efforts. This man was a genius in everything: in physics and in selfishness. Already in 1912, just two years after the birth of his second son, Einstein began a secret correspondence with his second future wife and his own cousin Elsa. In 1914, Einstein and Maric parted ways. Nevertheless, the great scientist helped Mari and his sons, one of whom - Eduard - was later diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Mileva had to selflessly look after Edward until her death, until in 1948 she died all alone. It happened in one of the Zurich hospitals.
Einstein was a ruthless man. Fortunately, this manifested itself in science, and unfortunately, in relationships with loved ones.
However, this is not always the case. Therefore, a genius physicist can be called an extremely uncompromising person. Acquaintances speak of Einstein as a sociable, friendly and cheerful person. And also - kind, ready to help at any moment. There was absolutely no snobbery in him, absolutely no conceit, and instead there was an enchanting human charm and a wonderful sense of humor. When the greatest genius of all time was asked where his laboratory was located, he, as you know, smiling, showed a fountain pen.
In private life, he was also completely unpretentious, and in recent years he has invariably appeared in public in his favorite warm sweater.
Everyone knows his disgust and angry reaction towards injustice, oppression and lies. The most hated word from the German language, he considered the word Zwang - violence, coercion.
There are also known stories about Einstein from his attending physician, Gustav Bucky, who said that his eminent patient hated posing in front of the artist. But as soon as he found out that with the help of this portrait a beggar painter could earn himself at least a little money, he patiently sat out in front of the artist for long and agonizing hours.
At the end of his life path, Albert Einstein will say: "The ideals that illuminated my path and gave me courage and courage were goodness, beauty and truth."