For some reason, it is believed that the world of the future will be free of crime. But will the time come when it will be possible to solve any crime, and there will not be a single crime that could not have been prevented? Will the police of the future be capable of this?
The famous hero of the popular cartoon claimed that he had only one document - a mustache, paws and a tail. That is, it is enough to look at him - and the feline personality is established. Everything goes to the fact that the same rule will work for a person, and the phrase: "Show documents" - will finally become a thing of the past. The technology incorporated in the acclaimed FindFace application may well come to the service of the police. Augmented reality glasses in combination with face recognition software will become an integral part of the outfit of patrol police officers. Until recently, it would have seemed fantastic. But today we are one step away from this. Or even half. FindFace developers are already enthusiastically talking about how some police officers use their application. First, the photos of the suspects are run through the app. When the profile is found, a request is made to the administration of the social network, from which IP address its owner came in. Well, then a police squad leaves for the address.
There is very little left to do: give the cops augmented reality glasses. And the search itself can be carried out not only on social networks, but also on forensic databases containing full-face photos of criminals, profile and three-quarters. So, the search will become much easier. However, the police today are watching the streets not only through the eyes of their patrolmen. The cities are crammed with CCTV cameras. By applying face recognition technology to them, it will be possible to search for wanted criminals, people who have lost their memory, and lost children, block the entrance to the stadiums for fans who have been blacklisted.
Automatic face recognition systems like FindFace will be able to recognize anyone who comes into the field of view of video cameras or police. But if you are not recognized, you will probably already arouse suspicion by this. What if you are a plastic surgery criminal?
Drones will be added to the patrols of the future. And it will probably happen soon enough. Amazon has already rushed to file a patent for miniature drones for police patrols. The police drone was named UAVA (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Assistant), which translates as "unmanned aerial vehicle assistant." Judging by the description, the drone cop will sit on a patrolman's shoulder almost like a parrot on John Silver's shoulder. On the command to "take off", the aerial robocop will rise into the air to fulfill the commands of its "master". Equipped with a video camera, he will be able to look where it is dangerous for a living employee to enter, and thereby save the police from unnecessary risk. And he will also be able to participate in the prosecution of criminals. With air support, it is much easier to catch up with the intruder, and he himself, being in the field of view of the drone, is less likely to slip away unnoticed.
In addition, a police drone will be able to hover over the street or car while the "owner" checks the documents of suspicious individuals. In this case, it is much more difficult to attack a law enforcement officer with impunity, because the video of the attack will be immediately sent to the police station.
Robot Cop, a sci-fi action movie directed by Paul Verhoeven in 1987, has defined the police of the future for many. But the use of robots in the police force poses many ethical concerns.
The first robots were recruited into the US military for overseas operations. Now they have come to the police. But when Dallas police first used a robot to kill a terrorist in the US last year, it sparked a lot of controversy. Some commentators have bluntly stated, "The drones are back home."
Three people are killed every day by police in the United States. In this case, the officers act strictly according to the instructions. And their actions are considered, as a rule, justified. After all, their lives were in danger. And the life of a police officer in the United States is expensive. And if the first robots are controlled remotely, then semi-autonomous ones will come next. Well, and then - endowed with elements of artificial intelligence. As for the police officer, a program instruction will be developed for him, telling him when to shoot and when not. But would you like the robot to decide whether you live or die? How many will die at their hands? The cost of the robot used in Dallas is $ 100,000. Do not think that the police will allow anyone to shoot at them. It's too expensive a toy. This means that he, like a living officer, will use weapons. For self-preservation. And in the future, news of a robot killing a person will spark a surge in public debate.
However, not all robots will be allowed to shoot people. Already produced by Knightscope, they are designed for security and patrolling. A robot weighing 140 kilograms and a meter and a half in height carries out its service completely autonomously and does not need constant operator control. It has infrared vision and 360-degree view. The robot is an excellent patrolman, it can recognize faces and license plates. With a thermal imager and microphones, it can pinpoint the exact location of a shot or explosion. He himself cannot shoot and defend himself yet. Like unmanned vehicles, it is equipped with lidar, radar and ultrasonic sensors. Starting in 2017, such robots-patrolmen will enter the service of the Dubai Police.
Video surveillance and "safe cities"
The presence of video cameras makes it much easier to solve crimes. And the very understanding that the streets are crammed with CCTV cameras stops many from committing a crime. But still not all. Take the story of the kidnapping of the New Year tree at the end of last year. Cameras installed at the entrances recorded not only how the tree was taken out of one entrance, but also how it was brought into another. And the trail of broken toys led to the abductors' apartment.
In Moscow, video surveillance is used in the investigation of 70% of crimes. The city authorities are implementing the Safe City program, which provides for the creation of a network of video surveillance cameras throughout the city. Similar programs are being implemented not only in our country. The capital ranks 2nd in the world in terms of the number of outdoor video surveillance cameras per capita. The first place belongs to London, where, with a population of approximately 8.4 million people, there are 600,000 CCTV cameras. Great Britain ranks first in Europe in the number of video cameras per inhabitant of the country. They are located not only on streets and highways, but also on buses, trams, and metro stations. The average Briton gets caught on camera 70 to 300 times a day. The highest ranks of the British police believe that soon video surveillance will be on a par with such methods of solving crimes as DNA analysis and fingerprint identification.
If the data of automatic tracking (recordings of video cameras, the history of phone movements) can be used as evidence, then they should be accepted by the court and as proof of innocence.It will become much easier to prove that the person was not at the scene of the crime.
Global video surveillance provides many opportunities for operational and investigative police units. Here and remote external surveillance of suspects and objects, and the search for hiding from the investigation, and the pursuit of violators. Operatives will not have to sit in ambush in any weather, waiting for the appearance of the alleged criminal. Observation can be carried out remotely.
In solving crimes, you cannot do without a forensic expert. It is he who collects evidence at the crime scene. Examines them and actually turns them into evidence against a specific person. The further scientific and technological progress advances, the more accurate and perfect the methods of solving crimes become. Forensic science is simply obliged to be sensitive to all innovations.
Fingerprints and palm prints have long been considered key evidence left by a criminal at a crime scene. The method of identifying a person by his fingerprints is called fingerprinting and has been used since 1902. But fingerprinting does not stand still. Now the task of a forensic expert is to detect and fix fingerprints at the crime scene and to establish the identity of the person who left them. Dutch forensic experts considered that this was not enough. Determining the time when the fingerprint was left is a new challenge. This allows you to recreate a more complete picture of the crime, to exclude from the list of suspects who, although they were at the crime scene, were there at a different time. The method presented by Marcel de Puy, an employee of the NFI Forensic Science Institute, is more effective than other similar methods.
Fingerprints are composed of a complex mixture of fat and sweat. They are composed of various types of amino acids, proteins and other compounds. Modern technologies make it possible to determine not only what a particular imprint consists of, but the amount of certain substances in it. Science knows that some of the components of the substance that make up the imprint decompose and disappear over time. But some do it quickly, others, on the contrary, slowly. If no more than two weeks have passed since the imprint was left, then experts can indicate with sufficient certainty the date when it was left. The time can also be determined within two days. The method is based on determining the proportions of chemical compounds in the print substance. While some compounds have already decomposed, others are still preserved. This allows you to get a more accurate result, unlike other methods that are based only on the determination of the amount of specific chemical compounds. The Dutch experts do not stop there. A new method that they are developing must find an answer to the question of what drugs or drugs the person who left the fingerprints took and what food he ate. And this can already lead to the circumstances of the crime.
Crimes of the future
William Gibson, American science fiction writer and futurist, once said: “The future has already arrived. It's just that it's still unevenly distributed. " Therefore, even in our time, crimes worthy of the Middle Ages coexist with crimes that we previously could only read about in fantastic stories. Last February, hackers blocked the computer system of Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center in Los Angeles. The medical facility had to pay a ransom in bitcoins equivalent to $ 17,000. Cryptocurrency also had to pay off from scammers - the Armada Collective group - who pretended to be hackers. At the same time, Los Angeles is flooded with hundreds of large and small gangsters. There are about three hundred African American gangs alone.They sell drugs, steal cars, commit robberies. Fathers and grandfathers of members of gangsters, as a rule, also belonged to criminal groups. Over the generations, the way of life of these people has not changed. High-tech crime and crime caused by poverty and unemployment coexist. And there is no reason to believe that this will change in the future, at least in the foreseeable future. But the proportion of offenses where the subject of crime or the tools used by the attackers were the fruits of modern technology, will continue to grow.
Technological progress provides many new opportunities for those who are looking for profit. New inventions can become both a tool in the hands of criminals and a target of crime. Take the games industry, for example. Weapons, ammunition, magical attributes, and the game accounts themselves have long been the subject of sale and purchase. They come at a price. And if so, then, accordingly, become the target of crimes.
Today we are diving deeper and deeper into the world of virtual reality. Games created using virtual reality technology are gaining more and more popularity. But soon, not only to play, but also to travel, make purchases in virtual stores, go to work (at least participate in virtual planning meetings and get scolded by the authorities), we will be in the virtual world. Even communicate with your children. Last spring, Samsung introduced the Bedtime VR Stories app. It allows parents to read fairy tales to their children and spend time together in virtual reality if, for some reason, they cannot be there in the real world. Virtual reality will pull us in the same way as the Internet, social networks, computer games once pulled in. Now imagine that one fine morning you are trying to enter the virtual world and suddenly find out that your virtual identity has been kidnapped.
Already today it is possible to take over control and hijack an aerial drone. Tomorrow, a hacker, breaking into an automatic control system, can steal your self-driving car. And it's also good if you are not in the salon at that moment. The day after tomorrow your personal robot will be "hijacked".
Everyone remembers last year's Pokemon Go hype. The game has become a truly new word in the gaming industry. And we all remember that it attracted the attention of not only gamers, but also attackers. The robbers began to use the world of Pokemon Go to lure the victim to a place convenient for them. A place where a gullible player could be robbed without much ado. An excellent illustration of how criminals are turning the trappings of the high-tech world into a weapon of crime. The computer has long been a weapon of hackers' crime, the mobile phone - for telephone scammers. What's next? A virtual reality helmet? Probably, virtual reality will also become a place for committing crimes in the future.
Your own memory as an alibi or as evidence?
What if you penetrate the memory and look through the memories of a suspect in a crime? Remember how in the 2012 Hollywood movie The Extract? The protagonist invents a way to penetrate into someone else's memory and view the memories of other people. This is where the new "queen of evidence" is, the key to solving all the crimes. But for now, this is fantastic. It seems that scientists do not even know how to approach the implementation of this idea yet. But, perhaps, the time will come when the memories of other people can be viewed like a video recorder. It will become senseless to commit crimes, and it will be impossible to escape punishment. It will be enough just to get a court order to view your memories. Then, probably, the crimes will stop. No, though. In a world where memories can be viewed, it will be possible to falsify them in order to escape responsibility for what was done. Here is another new type of crime of the future.