The most famous Russian scientists are Zhores Alferov, Mikhail Gelfand, Grigory Perelman and many others.
Let's start with the "lumps".
When a survey is conducted among the population, which of the modern domestic scientists you can name, the name of Zhores Ivanovich is spoken first, and sometimes, alas, the only one. Many consider him not so much a scientist as the "administrator" of Russian science. You can love him or not love him, but the fact remains - the academician, the only living (living in our country) Russian Nobel Prize laureate (in physics), Vice President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Deputy of the State Duma Zhores Alferov made a truly gigantic contribution not only to science, but also in our daily life. It is thanks to his fundamental work on semiconductors that we today can use such achievements of civilization as mobile phones, CDs, LEDs, etc.
His name in street polls is called the second (and already almost always the last) after Alferov, and he is the strangest scientist of our time. The mathematician Perelman, as you know, not only solved one of the seven problems of the millennium (so far this is the only solved problem of the seven) - he was the first to prove Poincaré's conjecture, but also refused the Fields Medal in 2006, and then the Clay Institute prize of $ 1 million in 2010-m.
“I refused,” said Perelman. - You know, I had a lot of reasons for both sides. That's why I took so long to decide. In short, the main reason is disagreement with the organized mathematical community. I do not like their decisions, I consider them unfair. I believe that the contribution of the American mathematician Hamilton to the solution of this problem is no less than mine."
Columbia University mathematics professor Richard Hamilton accepted the award after being awarded the $ 1 million Shao Prize (also called the Nobel Prize of the East).
Bioinformatist, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics at Moscow State University, Deputy Director for Science of the Institute for Information Transmission Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, world-class scientist Mikhail Gelfand is known not only for his work, but, of course, for his civic position. He is the most active fighter against abuse and fraud in the field of dissertation defense and the awarding of scientific degrees in our country. And in September of this year, Mikhail Sergeevich even signed a statement from the "Round Table on December 12" to the March of Peace on September 21, demanding "to end the aggressive adventure: withdraw Russian troops from the territory of Ukraine and stop propaganda, material and military support for separatists in the South-East of Ukraine."
Physicist, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. GN Flerova at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Yuri Oganesyan is considered one of the likely candidates for the Nobel Prize, and he has been nominated more than once. Yuri Tsolakovich is the one who expands the periodic table today and should be the object of dislike for all schoolchildren and the delight of the scientific community, because it is he who owns the creation of at least six chemical elements, and in co-authorship, many others.
Andrey Geim and Konstantin Novoselov
These two professors of the University of Manchester were born and worked for some time in our country, and then, like many talented scientists, they moved abroad, where they received the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of graphene in 2010 (graphene is a material,with which they associate the future of all electronic equipment; for an interview with one of the world's foremost graphene experts, Mikhail Katznelson, see the March 2014 issue of Naked Science).
Alas, both Andrei Geim and Konstantin Novoselov refused the invitation to work at Skolkovo, rather categorically (and probably rightly) stating the organization of science in our country and another initiative to return scientists from abroad: “I’m nothing I represent (no scientific or academic structure). It is completely normal that you do not know me … Maybe the popularization of science should be put on a higher level, but the biggest gratitude to the scientist is to let him work the way he wants, "- said Konstantin Novoselov in an interview with the Russian Reporter magazine …
This is the person who, in the early 1980s of the last century, together with physicist Mikhail Shaposhnikov, put forward the idea that there are an infinite number of dimensions in the universe. In our daily life, we see only three of them, but by applying energy, we can get into others. Theoretical physicist, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, one of the world's leading experts in the field of quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and cosmology Valery Anatolyevich shared his thoughts on parallel universes, the past of the world and gravitational waves with us (read an interview with him in the issue of Naked Science for May-June this year).
Alexey Alexandrovich is one of the founders of the modern theory of the birth of the Universe. A theoretical physicist, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a year ago he became a laureate of one of the most prestigious awards in astrophysics - Kavli - for the most important discovery in theoretical physics over the past thirty years: "the innovative theory of cosmic inflation." Read all about his grandiose theory in an interview with Alexei Starobinsky in the January 2014 issue of Naked Science magazine.
He is considered an outstanding Soviet and Russian astrophysicist. RAS Academician Rashid Alievich is the Head of the Department of High Energy Astrophysics at the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and is the Managing Director of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, according to which the relict radiation in outer space is gradually scattered under the influence of electrons, has been studied by scientists all over the world for many years, hundreds, and maybe thousands of scientific works have been devoted to it. In 2011, Sunyaev was awarded the Kyoto Prize (a Japanese award modeled after the Nobel Prize; awarded for achievements that should "make the world a better place") in the amount of 50 million yen.
The top ten is closed by the biologist, paleontologist and popularizer of science. whose name has already become a household name when it comes to modern biology - Alexander Markov. In addition to his scientific works, Alexander Vladimirovich is known, of course, for his works of art and excellent popular science books, which almost for the first time in the entire post-Soviet history of science pop became real bestsellers. His two-volume editions Human Evolution: Monkeys, Bones and Genes and Human Evolution: Monkeys, Neurons and the Soul, and a book on the origins of life on Earth, The Birth of Complexity. Evolutionary biology today. Unexpected discoveries and new questions”are literally swept from store shelves. This is understandable. In them, the biologist is very intelligible, with humor, and most importantly - very professionally talks about fundamental issues that can worry everyone: how did modern man appear, where our consciousness originates from, how life appeared on Earth, etc. For his great contribution to enlightenment, Alexander Markov became a laureate of the award in the field of popular science literature "Enlightener".(Read an interview with Alexander Markov in the next issue of Naked Science).
Of course, this is not a complete list of outstanding scientists and scientists who are rapidly gaining popularity. Here are just a few of those who could also be on this list, or at least continue it: physicist Vladimir Zakharov, astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev, anthropologist Stanislav Drobyshevsky (read an interview with him in the July-August 2014 issue of Naked Science), physicist Igor Mitrofanov (for an interview with him in the February 2014 issue of Naked Science), astronomer and popularizer Vladimir Surdin (for an interview with him in the issue of Naked Science in June 2013), bioinformatist Konstantin Severinov, astrophysicist Sergey Popov, archaeologist Anatoly Derevyanko and many others.