Russian archaeologists have found two exotic treasures

Russian archaeologists have found two exotic treasures
Russian archaeologists have found two exotic treasures
Anonim

One of them sheds light on the little-known pre-Slavic history of the place, which became the center of the formation of Russian statehood.

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This summer brought two unusual finds to Russian archaeologists at once: they opened two treasures. The first was found on the territory of the Suzdal Opolye, which is located at the junction of the Vladimir and Ivanovo regions. It was from here that the Slavic colonization of North-Eastern Russia proceeded, and here was the core of the Rostov-Suzdal land, which became the Grand Duchy of Vladimir in the 12th century. The shift here of the center of political influence of the Russian lands subsequently led to the establishment of Moscow's supremacy in Russian affairs.

Archaeologists have been working in Suzdal Opolye for the twentieth season. And in a rather large (about nine hectares) settlement on the banks of the Nerl River, a treasure was found. It was not disturbed by all sorts of antiquity hunters, scientists were the first to open it. Inside there were adornments related to the women's traditional costume, characteristic of the culture of the Volga Finns.

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The history of the Suzdal Opolye of the first millennium AD remains poorly understood. Traditionally, it is believed that the predecessors of the Slavic population on the territory of North-Eastern Russia was one of the groups of the Volga-Finnish tribes. In the chronicles the name of the tribe is preserved - "Merya". Nevertheless, it has not yet been possible to reliably say anything about the Finno-Ugric population of this area.

In addition to women's jewelry, a metal bowl with a loop-shaped handle was found in the treasure - an item completely unusual for local cultures: most likely, it was imported from the Middle East.

The second treasure was found not far from Old Ryazan (destroyed in 1237), in a dense forest, on the slope of a damp ravine. Its coast was carefully examined, but no cultural layer was found. That is, it is a typical treasure buried in the forest.

In a small birch bark or bast tuyeska (the ashes of its walls were found), someone hid jewelry and money ingots (hryvnia) with a total weight of more than two kilograms.

Cash ingots - Novgorod hryvnia: one whole, two halves of a cut and a cut off piece of ingot stick. The hryvnia was called an ingot of about 200 grams of silver. The found jewelry is heterogeneous and could have belonged to both men and women. These are mainly neck torcs and bracelets. The items are very diverse both in style and in manufacturing methods.

The preliminary dating of the Ryazan hoard is the end of the 11th - the first half of the 12th century. If this is so, then the treasure was buried in the ground before the settlements of the Staraya Ryazan (then - simply Ryazan), the capital of the Great Ryazan principality, a fairly rich state, appeared. This happened at the end of the 12th century.

In general, treasures were found quite often in Old Ryazan and around it. This is due to the fact that in December 1237, shortly before and during the storming of the city by the army of Batu, residents tried to preserve their acquired values ​​in such a simple way. As is clear from subsequent events, there was no one to return their property. After the capture of Ryazan, its population was killed by the Mongols.

But, as already mentioned, the forest treasure is clearly older than the old Ryazan treasure, it includes other types of ornaments made in a simpler technique and archaic manner. Most of the found items are generally unique for this region.

Archaeologists suggest that about a kilometer from the place of discovery there was a road from Staraya Ryazan to a hypothetical pier near the village of Isady, six kilometers from the capital of the principality. If we take this factor into account, then a strange set of money and ornaments made of a tuyeska, buried in a deep forest at the edge of a ravine, most of all looks like the prey of a robber from this very torn road.But why he did not return for the treasure (he was seized by the authorities or died for another reason), we are unlikely to know.

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